Monthly Archives: April 2018

Chispology 10: The Saxon Advent

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chisp coverContinuing the serialization of

Damian Beeson Bullen’s

CHISPOLOGY

In which a few more of the world’s greatest mysteries… are finally solved

Available to buy in book form

Autumn 2018

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The main difference, I believe, between my personal approach to history & that of many scholars, is that where they spend the majority of their time attacking the sources, I tend to use them. The key is learning how to read a difficult & oblique text, rather than declare it as phantasmagorical & discard it completely. Modern scholars also tend to trust each other’s work a tad too much, putting complete faith in their school & schooling rather than their own abilities. The York historian Guy Halsall summed up the attitude perfectly. After countering his anti-Arthurian stance with some new evidence, he retorted by saying, ‘I’ve looked at your bibliography & you don’t know anything.’ The thing is, my bibliography in the main consisted of primary sources, & his insistence on me not knowing anything was based upon my not quoting from the academic handling of this source material. On faced with the Chispological evidence which proves Arthur’s existence, Guy  – who had just published a book ‘disproving’ said Arthurian existence – had this lot rather charmingly to say;

Your ‘chispology’ is nonsense, it breaks all the rules of serious scholarly practice, so no one, other than you and whoever else has been smoking whatever you have been, will take it seriously. I doubt there is any chance of me, or anyone else who actually knows what they are talking about, being able to convince you as, from your writing, you are – clearly – insane but still, if it makes you happy keep on with your fiction-writing. Far be it from me to keep you from your fun, but if you are thinking of conning people out of their hard-earned cash on the basis of your pseudo-studies, that I do object to.

Moving on quite regardless, let us now attempt to find the truth in another Dark Age event long considered – by academics – ‘not to have actually happened.’ 

It is time for the introduction into Chispological studies of a concept known as the Factotree. What the Babel-Tree is to words, the Factotree is to historical events, which must be rooted in either a solid fact or a hyperbasis. Throughout my Jesus Jigsaw studies, for example, a flourishing factotree has grown rooted in a single, international holy man. Along one branch he is remembered in the Judeo-Christian tradition, with smaller sub-branches shooting off into Islam. Along another branch he is remember’d in the Hindoo tradition, with sub-branches leading off into Tamil mythology, & so on. On this occasion I would like to explore more fully the connections I show’d in the last chapter concerning the philochisps latent between the Frisians & a Pictish group known as the Niuduera. The chief correlation is that, just as the Niuduera of Fife resided by what was known as the ‘The Frisian Shore,’ in Galloway we may observe a River Nith flowing through the town of Dumfries – the ‘hillfort of the Frisians.’ To solve the conundrum, just as I elucidated the Babel Tree system of philochains, I would now like to impose a similar structure onto the factochain, rooted upon the following hyperbasis:

Hyperbasis: A group known as the Western Herulians are the ethnographic basis of the Frisian invasion of Britain, out of which sprang certain elements of the Anglo-Saxon diaspora & also a new group among the Picts, rather like the Norman invasion a few centuries later, when the native Saxon population were dominated by Norman warlords. For ease of dicate I shall name them Herulo-Picto-Frisians.

As Humanity has developed, every new race that arrives on the planet is actually a composite blending of other, earlier tribes, so such an entity as the Herulo-Picto-Frisians is perfectly possible. A key start to proving their existence is to identify other connections between the Herulians, the Frisians (especially around the Firth of Forth) & the Picts in Galloway. Firstly, we may connect the Scandinavian origins of the Heruli with a passage in Saxo Grammaticus, Scandinavia’s Big Geoffesque historian, in whose Gesta Danorum we read; ‘Hadding chanced to hear that a certain giant had taken in troth Ragnhild, daughter of Hakon, King of the Nitherians.’ The Nitherians were Norwegian, & there were many men called Hadding among them, known collectively as the Haddingjar. The county town of East Lothian, on the south shores of the Frisian Sea – the Firth of Forth – is called,  quite interestingly, Haddington. The sagas also describe the son of a King Hadding call’d Frodo, who attacked & subdued Scotland in his father’s name! If my hyperbasis is correct, then the return of the Herulian nobles to Scandinavia c.500, as recorded by Procopius, where they were led by ‘many of the royal blood,’ to settle ‘at the Getes’ has some connection with the Norwegian Nitherians.

So much for the trunk of our theory. Branching out once more, there are Pictish symbols found in the area of the Mote of Mark hillfort in Galloway, among the most southerly symbols in the whole pantheon. Another match-up is the discovery at Whitecleuch, 12 miles north of Drumlanrig Castle in Galloway, & also at Traprain Law in East Lothian, of tangible hallmarks of Pictish nobility – two heavy, double-link’d silver chains.

The Whitecleuch chain
The Whitecleuch chain
The Traprain chain
The Traprain chain

The Galloway Picts are mentioned in the early Middle Ages, and the arrival of our conjectured Herulo-Picto-Frisians in the area seems remembered by William of Malmesbury, concerning an account of the discovery of the grave of Walwin (Gawain) in 1087: ‘he reigned a most renowned knight in that part of Britain which is still named Walweitha, but was driven from his kingdom by the brother and nephew of Hengist.’ Hengist was the star of the Saxon Advent, i.e. the Teutonic invasion of England in the middle of the 5th century. ‘Hengist, who cannot have been a Dane,’ remark’d John Kemble, ‘is a Frisian, appears as such in the genealogy of the Kings of Kent, and is the fabled conqueror of Britain.‘ The last bit of the sentence refers to Henghist & his surly crew basically running rampant over Vortigern, inviting loads of their drunken German mates over on the booze-cruise which basically created England. Crucially for our factotree, a contingent of these, our hyperbasis’d Herulo-Picto-Frisians, establish themselves in Scotland; a story ably told by Nennius.

Hengist, in whom united craft and penetration, perceiving he had to act with an ignorant king, and a fluctuating people, incapable of opposing much resistance, replied to Vortigern, “We are, indeed, few in number; but, if you will give us leave, we will send to our country for an additional number of forces, with whom we will fight for you and your subjects.” Vortigern assenting to this proposal, messengers were despatched to Scythia, where selecting a number of warlike troops, they returned with sixteen vessels, bringing with them the beautiful daughter of Hengist. And now the Saxon chief prepared an entertainment, to which he invited the king, his officers, and Ceretic, his interpreter, having previously enjoined his daughter to serve them so profusely with wine and ale, that they might soon become intoxicated. This plan succeeded; and Vortigern, at the instigation of the devil, and enamoured with the beauty of the damsel, demanded her, through the medium of his interpreter, of the father, promising to give for her whatever he should ask. Then Hengist, who had already consulted with the elders who attended him of the Oghgul race, demanded for his daughter the province, called in English Centland, in British, Ceint, (Kent.). This cession was made without the knowledge of the king, Guoyrancgonus who then reigned in Kent, and who experienced no inconsiderable share of grief, from seeing his kingdom thus clandestinely, fraudulently, and imprudently resigned to foreigners. Thus the maid was delivered up to the king, who slept with her, and loved her exceedingly.

Hengist, after this, said to Vortigern, “I will be to you both a father and an adviser; despise not my counsels, and you shall have no reason to fear being conquered by any man or any nation whatever; for the people of my country are strong, warlike, and robust: if you approve, I will send for my son and his brother, both valiant men who at my invitation will fight against the Scots, and you can give them the countries in the north, near the wall called “Gual.” The incautious soveImage result for vortigern daughter hengist paintingreign having assented to this, Octa and Ebusa arrived with forty ships. In these they sailed round the country of the Picts, laid waste the Orkneys, and took possession of many regions, islands beyond the Fresic sea, that is, that which is between the Scots, as far as to the confines of the Picts
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There is suitable evidence here to support the Herulo-Picto-Frisian theory. Firstly, Henghist sends messengers to Scythia for reinforcements, one of the main Pictish & Herulian stomping grounds. That Henghist was attended by elders ‘of the Oghgul race,’ & that his kinsmen, ‘took possession of many regions, islands beyond the Fresic sea… as far as to the confines of the Pict,’ presents a wonderful piece of Chispology, hitherto un-noticed but astonishingly obvious. We can here create a Hyperfact, based upon inference, that as Hengist was connected to the Oghguls, then so we’re his kinsmen. Thus, at the very ‘Pictish confines’ that members of the Oghgul race were said to have settled, we find the Ochil range of hills at the southern extremes of Pictavia. Situated to the north-east of Stirling, they form a natural barrier to the central belt, whose peaks may be seen from as far off as Traprain Law on a clear day. There is the ancient site of Ochiltree in East Ayrshire, just north of modern Galloway, Glen Ogilvie near Glamis on Angus, and the River Oykel – known to the Vikings as the Ekkjal – which forms the traditional boundary between Ross to the south & Pictish Cat, ie Sutherland, to the north. The Ochil Hills and the Oykel are close to realms ruled by King Loth (Lothian and Orkneys), who in previous chapters has had enough historical mud-cake dusted off to reveal a Herulian layer; such as his son being Pharos the Herulian.

walkMap (1)

The Ochil Hills especially connect well with Octa and Ebusa’s presence in the Firth of Forth. On investigation, my mate Skene show’d how the Anglo-Saxon territory covered great swathes of the Scottish eastern coast;

The first and principal seat of them {The Frisians} appears to have been the northern shore of the Firth of Forth, and extending along the shore of Forfarshire, and perhaps Kincardine, as far as Stonehaven… This region hears the indications of a Saxon population in the peculiar term applied to the hills which is here so frequent, viz. Laws ; and the frontier range itself hears the name of the Sidlaw Hills…. The second locality in which I think we can trace them is that part of the coast of East-Lothian where it projects into the Firth, a great promontory consisting of the parishes of Dirleton and North Berwick, and where there was anciently a ferry to the opposite coast of Fife, which is here not more than eight miles distance.

That Hengist was a Frisian can also be discerned by matching his genealogy with a stone memorial found near Edinburgh. When Bede tells us Hengist was the ‘son of Vitgilsus, whose father was Vecta, son of Woden’ we have a direct match up to an inscribed 6th century memorial called the Cat Stane, which stands in the precincts of Edinburgh Airport. It reads;

 In this tomb lies Vetta son of Victus

Image result for cat stane edinburgh

Image result for cat stane edinburgh

This lineage is extended in the Historia Brittonum, which tells us that Hengist and his brother Horsa were,  ‘sons of Guictglis, son of Guicta, son of Guechta, son of Vouden, son of Frealof, son of Fredulf, son of Finn, son of Foleguald, and Foleguald son of Geta.’  Using the Chisper Effect, let us connect the last two names ‘Foleguald son of Geta’ to Filimer & Gadaric, who appear in the Scandinavian origins of the Herulians as given by the 6th century historian, Jordanes.

Now from this island of Scandza, as from a hive of races or a womb of nations, the Goths are said to have come forth long ago under their king, Berig by name. As soon as they disembarked from their ships and set foot on the land, they straightway gave their name to the place. And even to-day it is said to be called Gothiscandza. Soon they moved from here to the abodes of the Ulmerugi, who then dwelt on the shores of Ocean where they pitched camp, joined battle with them and drove them from their homes. Then they subdued their neighbors, the Vandals, and thus added to their victories. But when the number of the people increased greatly and Filimer, son of Gadaric, reigned as king–about the fifth since Berig–he decided that the army of the Goths with their families should move from that region. In search of suitable homes and pleasant places they came to the land of Scythia, called Oium in that tongue. Here they were delighted with the great richness of the country, and it is said that when half the army had been brought over, the bridge whereby they had crossed the river fell in utter ruin, nor could anyone thereafter pass to or fro

The presence of Henghist’s father in Scotland fits well with an account in the life of St. Germanus of Auxerre which says the holy man visited Britain about 430 AD to fight heresy, during which period he led an army against the Saxons, who were raiding southern Britain in conjunction with the Picts. An actual date for the ‘Alleluia Battle’ as historians call it, of 428AD, may be accurately calculated thro’ chapter 66 of the Historia Brittonum and its mention of Roman consuls.

Vortigern reigned in Britain when Theodosius and Valentinian were consuls, & in the fourth year of his reign the Saxons came to Britain, in the consulship of Felix and Taurus

Image result for cynocephali dogheads

Elsewhere, in the bardic tradition of the Welsh,  we encounter a Frisian element in connection to Arthurian forces fighting Cynocephali at Edinburgh. It is found buried in a collection of poems known as ‘The Black Book of Carmarthen,’ thought by scholars to date from the middle of the thirteenth century. In the heart of one of these poems, the charming list of obscure Arthurian battles known as Pa Gur, we are told;

On the heights of Eidyn
He fought with cynocephali.
By the hundreds they fell
To Bedwyr’s four-pronged spear.

The key clue here is the word ‘cynocephali,’ which translates as Dog-heads. The name should derive from an ancient pre-battle tradition of warriors donning dog-masks & drinking blood. Paul the Deacon describes a group of 5th century Lombard warriors, doing just that, as in they; ‘pretended to have some cynocephali (that is, men with dog’s heads) in their camp, & they circulated among their enemies a rumour that these warriors never tired of fighting, that they drank human blood, & if they could not lay hands on an enemy, sucked their own blood. In order to make this story more credible, the Lombards increased the number of tent & lit many fires in their camp. The enemy being made credulous when these things are heard and seen, dare not now attempt the war they threatened.’ The Lombards are known to have shared with the Heruli the use of animal art and braceates (see Lottery Hedeager, European Journal of Archaeology I, 1998) while a Lothian connection to the Cynocephali comes through the Edinburgh’s fringe town, Pencaitland, whose name may have derived from the Pengouet as given in the Life of St. Gozenovius; ‘Dog-heads or canica capita are, in Breton, Pengouet.’

Note the proximity between Stade & East Frisia
Note the proximity between Stade & East Frisia

In an Old English manuscript on the Marvels of the East, the Cynocephali are glossed as ‘healf hundingas.’ According to Scandinavian sagas, the Hundings had a feud with another tribe called the the Wulfings. Saxo Grammaticus describes how the Wulfing king, Helgo, slew Hundingus, king of Saxony: ‘he conquered in battle Hundingus the son of Syricus, king of Saxony, at the city of Stadium (Stade) and challenging him to a single combat overthrew him. For this reason he was called ‘the slayer of Hundingus,’ deriving a glorious surname from his victory.’ This places the Hundings in the region of Stade, at the mouth of the Rhine, & close enough to the Frisians to be counted among the latter’s number. The ‘half’ element could reflect the hyperbasis that the Hundingus were of Herulian stock. Confirmation of the Hunding-Herulo-Pictish-Frisians connection comes again thro’ Saxo, who mentions one of Hengist’s sons – Hesce/Esc – as being one of Helgo’s generals.

He took Jutland from the Saxons and gave it to his generals Hesce, Eyr and Ler to hold and administer. In Saxony he decreed that the freeman and the freedman should have an equal wergeld, wishing, as it seems, to make it perfectly clear that all the families of the Teutones were equally in bondage and that the whole nation had been degraded by the loss of their freedom to an equally  dishonourable condition.

This passage also offers direct support for the theory we are building, which when combined with the account of Henghist’s connection to the ‘Oghgul race’ furnishes a perfectly composite platform, or a Factobasis, upon which we may stand the following hyper fact. There is an Ochiltree which can be found by the River Ayr (anciently Vidogara), whose name change could well have occurred during an occupancy of the region by the Oghgul General, EYR. The very same area is also connected quite heavily thro’ historical tradition and topographical philichisps to King Cole/Coel, the founder of the ruling houses of the Dark Age North, known as the Hen Ogledd, with an obvious Oghgul transchisper. It will come as no surprise, then, to witness the following Babel Chain.

Oghgul
Gul
Cul
Coel

This Babel Chain leads us to Harleian pedigree 19, where Coel’s name appears as GYL, a perfect match for Kyle – the district in Ayrshire said to be named after King Coel himself

Catguallaun map Guitcun map Samuil penissel map Pappa post Priten map Ceneu map Gyl hen

In any Factotree, it is inevitable that the historical leaves which spring from one branch will appear in close metaphysical proximity to those leaves sprung from other branches. This is the foliage of a Factotree, and in this instance we may associate the Ayrshire Oghguls with the Scandinavian branch of our theory. According to Saxo Grammaticus, King Cole heralded from Norway, & was slain by Hamlet’s father, Horwendil. His name here is KOLLER which connects to LER, the comrade of Hesce and Eye, and could actually mean LER the OGHGUL.

Horwendil held the monarchy for three years, and then, to will the height of glory, devoted himself to roving. Then Koller, King of Norway, in rivalry of his great deeds and renown, deemed it would be a handsome deed if by his greater strength in arms he could bedim the far-famed glory of the rover; and cruising about the sea, he watched for Horwendil’s fleet and came up with it. There was an island lying in the middle of the sea, which each of the rovers, bringing his ships up on either side, was holding. The captains were tempted by the pleasant look of the beach, and the comeliness of the shores led them to look through the interior of the springtide woods, to go through  the glades, and roam over the sequestered forests. It was here that the advance of Koller and Horwendil brought them face to face without any witness… they began the battle. Nor was their strangeness his meeting one another, nor the sweetness of that spring-green spot, so heeded as to prevent them from the fray. Horwendil, in his too great ardour, became keener to attack his enemy than to defend his own body; and, heedless of his shield, had grasped his sword with both hands; and his boldness did not fail. For by his rain of blows he destroyed Koller’s shield and deprived him of it, and at last hewed off his foot and drove him lifeless to the  ground. Then, not to fail of his compact, he buried him royally, gave him a howe of lordly make and pompous obsequies.

King Cole's Grave
King Cole’s Grave

The ‘howe of lordly make’ mentioned by Saxo is found in the grounds of Coilsfield House in Ayrshire, of which burial mound local tradition says it was that of King Cole. Knowing that Koller was the King of Norway, we can now gain an insight into the etymology of the Dark Age title, Guletic. It derives, as can be seen, from the name Gulating (Old Norse Gulaþing), which was an annual parliamentary assembly which took place in Gulen (Gyl Hen?), on the west coast of Norway north of Bergen, from at least 900AD. Its roots, however, may have stretched back centuries to the days when the Kings of Norway were also known as the Guletic.

Norwegian Parliamentary Plains at Eivindvik in Gulen
Norwegian Parliamentary Plains at Eivindvik in Gulen

The connection between the Brythonic word for old – gogled/ogledd – & the Oghguls may now explain the presence of the Niuduera in the areas we have highlighted. With Niud transchispering into Nith, we are led pleasantly to North, with its translation into Ogledd neatly sealing the chain into a cohesive circle.

Backtracking once again, the evidence for EYR’s comrade in arms, HECSE, being in Britain may be found by combining archaeological evidence with the scholarship of Big Geoff. The latter records the activities of Eosa/Esc & his son, Octa (some texts say Octa is the father of Esc) offering fealty to Ambrosius Aurelianus.

Aurelius led his army unto York to beleaguer Octa, Hengist’s son… moved thereto by the ensample of Octa, came Eosa and the rest of them that had fled and begged for mercy. He assigned unto them, therefore, the country upon the borders of Scotland, and confirmed a covenant with them

The Coppergate Helmet
The Coppergate Helmet

This places Eosa/Esc in York, in which place an Anglo-Saxon helmet was found at the Coppergate which records a man called ‘Osher.’

IN NOMINE : DNI : NOSTRI : IHV : SCS : SPS : DI : ET : OMNIBVS : DECEMVS : AMEN: OSHERE : XPI
In the name of our Lord Jesus, the Holy Spirit and God; and to all we say Amen / Oshere / Christ

The name transchispers into Oisc, an early king of Kent who ruled for twenty-four years, from 488 to 516 (Gesta Regum Anglorum). Bede records;

This Ethelbert was the son of Irminric, whose father was Octa, whose father was Orric, surnamed Oisc, from whom the kings of Kent are wont to be called Oiscings. His father was Hengist, who, being invited by Vortigern, first came into Britain, with his son Oisc, as has been said above.

The Coppergate helmet feels very much a cultural match for several 6th century, highly ornate helmets were excavated from the soil at the small Vojvodina village of Berkasovo, Serbia – a site of Herulian settlement in the Age of Justinian – & also the ‘Vendel’ helmets of the same era found in possible Herulian areas in Scandinavia.

Berkasovo Helmet
Berkasovo Helmet
Vendel Helmet
Vendel Helmet

We now come to a beautiful philochisp as regards to our hyperbasis. The Nennian version of Esc’s name is ‘Ebusa,’ which according to my hyperbasis would be the Uuirp/Erip of the Pictish King List. His son, Nechtan, was said to be a King from the 450s, whose name does reflect Octa, as in;

Nechtan
Echton
Octa

Let us now backtrack along the branches to Esc’s father, Henghist, who turns up in an Anglo-Saxon poetical fragment known as ‘The Fight at Finnesburh,’ outwith the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The translation below is by Benjamin Slade & in it we see the presence of Hengist in some form of civil action between the Frisians at Finnesburg & the Jutes of Jutland.

Then proclaimed Hnaef, the battle-young king:
‘This is not the eastern dawn nor is a dragon flying here
nor here does this hall’s gables burn.
But here they bear forth, birds screech,
the grey-coated wolf bays, the war-wood clashes,
the shield answers the shaft. Now the moon shines,
wandering under the clouds; now woe-deeds come to pass
which this people’s hatred desires to fulfil.
But awake now, my warriors,
grasp your linden-wood shields, resolve upon courage,
strive to the vanguard, be high-spirited.’
Then arose many a gold-laden thane, girded his sword
then moved to the door the noble champions
Sigeferth and Eaha, drew their swords,
and at the other door, Ordlaf and Guthlaf
and Hengest himself came just behind them.

Image result for fight at finnsburgIt is highly likely that the Eaha mentioned as fighting with Henghist in the Finnesburg fragment is Saxo’s Eyr. Hengist also appears in a version of this battle found in Beowulf, again translated by Benjamin Slade, in which he is associated with the Eoten & the ‘sons of Eotens.
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The warriors returned then to seek their houses,
bereft of friends, to see Frisia,
their homes and high fort; yet Hengest
the death-stained winter spent with Finn,
in a place with no fellowship at all; he remembered his land,
though he could not drive on the sea
the ring-prowed ship: the sea welled in storm,
fought against the wind; the winter locked the waves
in icy bonds, until came another
year to the courtyards, as it still does now,
those which continuously carry out their seasons,
gloriously bright weathers. Then winter was gone,
fair was the Earth’s breast; the exile was anxious to go,
the guest of the dwellings; he of vengeance for grief
sooner thought than of sea-path,
and whether he a bitter encounter could bring about,
for that he of the Eotens’ sons inwardly remembered;
so he did not refuse the worldly practice,
when to him Hunlafing the battle-light,
the finest blade he placed on (Hnaef’s) lap;
among the Eotens its edges were known.

At this juncture I would like to give a sample of some of the sagely confusion surrounding Hengist. Bede says the word Eotan is a translation of the Latin Iutae, or Jutes, & Raymond Wilson Chambers, in his ‘Introduction to the Study’ of Beowulf gives a pretty concise account of the academic head-scratching around the possibility;

If ‘Eoten’ means ‘Jute’ as it is usually agreed that it does, why should the Frisans be called Jutes, seeing that a Frisian is not a Jute? It is not necessary to assume that Frisians are called Eotenas or Jutes. All that we are justified in deducing from the text is that Frisians & Eotenas are both under the command of Finn. Now I agree that it is probable that Eotenas means Jutes; &, as I have said, there is nothing improbable in a Frisian king having had a clan of Jutes, or a body of Jutish mercenaries, subject to him. But that the Frisians as a whole should be called Jutes is, per se, exceedingly improbable, & we have no shadow of evidence for it.

The ‘shadow of evidence’ does exist, however. If the Firth of Forth is known in the same time period as both as the Frisian Sea & the Sea of Iodeo (or Iudeu), & with the latter names easily transchispering into Bede’s Iutae, then once again the Dark Age candles lit by the The Chisper Effect help to illuminate a portion of our lost knowledge. It seems, then, that the Firth of Forth was also once known as the Sea of the Jutes. The name Eoten may have even influenced the etymology of Edinburgh – known as Etain in 638 – which could have been originally the ‘Eotens burh.’  The Ravenna Cosmography of c. 700 AD even places a ‘Euidens’ in the area (Euidensca is a corruption, with the ca element actually belonging to the next settlement, Rumabo, ie Carumabo=Cramond), while the curious quasi-Pictish broch near Duns, to the South East of Edinburgh, known as Edin’s Hall, transchispers easily into Eotens Hall. This particular structure, set in a wonderful naturalistic enclave of the Borders built on the site of an older Brythonic fortress, fits perfectly into the Herulo-Picto-Frisian idea through archaeology, dating & location. Indeed, while visiting the hall, & reading the ‘mystery’ on one of the boards there, I chuckl’d quietly to myself thinking, ‘mystery solved!’ There may also be a deepr chisper in play, for Edin’s Hall was once known as Wooden’s Hall, perhaps Woden’s Hall. With Henghist being a descendant of Woden according to the geneaology, & also one of the Sons of Eotan, then surely Woden is a key link in the babel-chain.

The wife having a lie down at Edin’s Hall…

We must also enter into the equasion a fragment of a stone found in a church wall at the southern shore of the Maelar (Strängnäs) in Sweden. Its inscription reads;

.rilaR .wodinRh

This connects the Herulians to the wolf-cult of Woden, which included the Lombards among its devotees. Academic concensus portrays the name Eotan was an early version of the Jute, the Teutonic tribe which occupied Kent, which explains how a Scotland-based Ochta took over the kingship there. Big Geoff records, ‘after the death of his father Hengist, came from the sinistral part of the island to the kingdom of Kent, and from him have proceeded all the kings of that province, to the present period.’  In comparing the Henghists of the Old English poetry to that of the histories, Chadwick neatly summarized the philochisps buzzing about like bees between the Jutes & the Eotan;

As for the tribes to which they belonged that of the Kentish Hengest is called by Bede Iutae (Iuti), while in English translations we find Ytena, Eota, Iutna, Iotum. The tribe to which the other Hengest belonged is called in Beowolf Eotena, Eotennum

Image result for lancelot graal

 

A Frisian Edinburgh leads us to an interesting passage in a 13th century text known as the Lancelot-Graal, one of the ‘Vulgate-Cycle‘ collection of Arthurian sagas that sprang up on the pages of the French poets. During my studies I became convinced that one of its creators must have had local knowledge of Edinburgh & its environs. The crucial passage reads;

They spent their days in travel until they came to Arestel & found the king laying siege to the Rock, just as the maiden had said, & the rock was so strong that those in it feared nothing except being starved. It had been secretly fortified at the time Vortigern married the daughter of Hengist the Saxon

This paragraph is one of countless others swirling about an early 13th century text known as the Vulgate Cycle, or more popularly the Lancelot-Grail (LG). This pretty-to-read, five-part medieval romance was composed piecemeal between about 1200 & 1230, its authorship accredited to several different authors, from Cistercian monks in France to the Welsh writer Walter Map. It is in the second part of the cycle that we encounter the siege of Saxon Rock, & the writer gives us so much topographical detail that the Rock seems more than just a product of the imagination. What first caught my eye was the name Arestel, which could well have lent its name to Restalrig, an area of Leith which I know very well, living as I do just off Easter Road. In fact, I’ve caught the single-decker number 25 to Restalrig many times – its usually a bit cramped but its not so bad a journey. In addition we see described a certain water-protected fortress on a lofty ‘Saxon Rock,’ which perfectly matches Edinburgh castle, once half-surrounded by the now-drained ‘Nor Loch,’ & which Nennius stated as being given to Henghist & co back in the 5th century. Also in the area, says the Cycle, lay the ‘Narrows of Godalente,’ which fits in with Lothian once being the demense of the Brythonic tribe known as the Gododdin, who Ptolemy called the ‘Otalini.

Image result for heruli map

At this point we can be quite certain that the Frisians came to Britain in the middle of the 5th century. It is my supposition that they were actually Herulians, or more precisely a sub-group known to historians as the Western Heruli. Let us first sum up what we know about the  Herulians. In the deeper histories their homelands were in Scandinavia. From here they moved en masse into the Roman world, settling in the Balkans by the Black Sea, & fought as foedarati in the ranks of the legions. By the 6th century they had begun the process of returning to their northern roots, & by the middle of the 6th century disappeared from conventional histories. Thus there are two main groups of Heruli – ie Scandinavia & the Baltic coasts – & the Eastern. In the 5th century, a third group evolved – the Western Heruls, the evidence for whom I shall place alongside notices in the ASC & elsewhere for the activity of Henghist with the idea that they were part of the same piratical group.

Early 300s: The Laterculus Veronenses (Verona List) of Roman provinces  places Heruls were in north-west Europe between the Rugi and the Saxons. A familial relationship with the Rugi is suggested by the Verona List placing some Eastern Heruls at that time living between the Sarmathae &  another group of Rugi living near the island of Rygen in the Hunnic area.

360s: Ammanius describes Herulians as having their homes beyond the Rhine (laribus transrhenanis). He also groups them with the Bataves, who lived at the mouth of the Rhine – very much the Frisian heartland. Indeed, the stretch of Frisian coast known as Ostfrisia,  was called Herloga by Adam of Bremen in the 11th century & in the 9th century  Herulingo/Herlogango.

400: The Roman Empire’s hold over Britain was about to massively implode. Just as on the continent, in Britain a series of barbarian tribes were piercing the Empire’s borders, spreading death, havoc & terror throughout the peace-loving Romano-Britons. Of these invasions, the Roman poet Claudius Claudianus, considered by many to be the last great poet of the Roman world, wrote in his eulogical ‘On the Consulship of Stilicho:’ when I too was about to succumb to the attack of neighbouring peoples – for the Scots had raised all Ireland against me, and the sea foamed under hostile oars – you, Stilicho, fortified me. This was to such effect that I no longer fear the weapons of the Scots, nor tremble at the Pict, nor along my shore do I look for the approaching Saxon on each uncertain wind.’

407: In his ‘On the Gothic War,’ Claudius describes the removal of a legion in the north in order to defend the continental empire; ‘there also came the legion set to guard the furthest Britons, the legion that curbs the savage Scot and scans the lifeless patterns tattooed on the dying Picts.’ This strategic withdrawal by the Romans stripped the frontier defences of Roman Britain. As soon as the Romans left, Gildas tells us;

As they were returning home, the terrible hordes of Scots and Picts eagerly come forth out of the tiny craft (cwrwgs) in which they sailed across the sea-valley, as on Ocean’s deep, just as, when the sun is high and the heat increasing, dark swarms of worms emerge from the narrow crevices of their holes. Differing partly in their habits, yet alike in one and the same thirst for bloodshed —-in a preference also for covering their villainous faces with hair rather than their nakedness of body with decent clothing—-these nations, on learning the departure of our helpers and their refusal to return, became more audacious than ever, and seized the whole northern part of the land as far as the wall, to the exclusion of the inhabitants.

409: Herulian pirates attack Gaul (Hieromnimus).

410:  The Gallic Chronicle of 452 records, ‘the Britains were devastated by an incursion of the Saxons.’  In his Historia Nova, Zosimus writes, ‘Honorius wrote letters to the cities in Britain, bidding them to take precautions on their own behalf.’

428: The ‘Alleluia Battle’ sees a combined force of Saxons & Picts invade southern Britain. The details are recorded by Saint Germanus. As one of the oldest documents we possess concerning British history (written by Constantius of Lyon, c.480) it is well worth a read;

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Chapter Seventeen

Meanwhile, the Saxons and the Picts had joined forces to make war upon the Britons. The latter had been compelled to withdraw their forces within their camp and, judging their resources to be utterly unequal to the contest, asked the help of the holy prelates. The latter sent back a promise to come, and hastened to follow it. Their coming brought such a sense of security that you might have thought that a great army had arrived; to have such apostles for leaders was to have Christ Himself fighting in the camp.

It was the season of Lent and the presence of the bishops made the sacred forty days still more sacred; so much so that the soldiers, who received instruction in daily sermons, flew eagerly to the grace of baptism; indeed, great numbers of this pious army sought the waters of salvation. A church was built of leafy branches in readiness for Easter Day, on the plan of a city church, though set in a camp on active service. The soldiers paraded still wet from baptism, faith was fervid, the aid of weapons was thought little of, and all looked for help from heaven.

Meanwhile the enemy had learned of the practices and appearance of the camp. They promised themselves an easy victory over practically disarmed troops and pressed on in haste. But their approach was discovered by scouts and, when the Easter solemnities had been celebrated, the army–the greater part of it fresh from the font–began to take up their weapons and prepare for battle and Germanus announced that he would be their general [dux proelii, “leader for this battle”]. He chose some light-armed troops and made a tour of the outworks. In the direction from which the enemy were expected he saw a valley enclosed by steep mountains. Here he stationed an army on a new model, under his own command.

Chapter Eighteen

By now the savage host of the enemy was close at hand and Germanus rapidly circulated an order that all should repeat in unison the call he would give as a battle-cry. Then, while the enemy were still secure in the belief that their approach was unexpected, the bishops three times chanted the Alleluia. All, as one man, repeated it and the shout they raised rang through the air and was repeated many times in the confined space between the mountains.

The enemy were panic-stricken, thinking that the surrounding rocks and the very sky itself were falling on them. Such was their terror that no effort of their feet seemed enough to save them. They fled in every direction, throwing away their weapons and thankful if they could save at least their skins. Many threw themselves into the river which they had just crossed at their ease, and were drowned in it.

Thus the British army looked on at its revenge without striking a blow, idle spectators of the victory achieved. The booty strewn everywhere was collected; the pious soldiery obtained the spoils of a victory from heaven. The bishops were elated at the rout of the enemy without bloodshed and a victory gained by faith and not by force.

Thus this most wealthy island, with the defeat of both its spiritual and its human foes, was rendered secure in every sense. And now, to the great grief of the whole country, those who had won the victories over both Pelagians and Saxons made preparations for their return. Their own merits and the intercession of Alban the Martyr secured them a calm voyage; and a good ship brought them back in peace to their expectant people.

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441: The two Gallic Chronicles (452 & 511) record, ‘the Britains, which to this time had suffered from various disasters and misfortunes, are reduced to the power of the Saxons.’
This probably connects with a possible chisperball presented by the ASC, which incorrectly squidges up the activities of Henghist into the period of Marcian & Valentinian’s co-rule of Rome. Where Marcian was the Eastern Roman Emperor from 450 to 457, Valentinian ruled from 419- 455. The ASC’s version is that in 449, ‘Marcian and Valentinian assumed the empire, and reigned seven winters. In their days Hengest and Horsa, invited by Wurtgern, king of the Britons to his assistance, landed in Britain in a place that is called Ipwinesfleet; first of all to support the Britons, but they afterwards fought against them.‘ According to HM Chadwick in his ‘The Origin of the English Nation‘ when Gildas writes of the Saxon Advent, he ‘does not give any reference to the reign of Martianus & Valentin inauspicious.’ The truth in the matter is that the complies of the ASC confused the advent with the time Marcian ruled on his own, tho` the Saxons were clearly operating in Britain thro`the 450s. Gildas, then, provides the purest form of the Saxon Advent, written from the harrass’d Brythonic point of view, an edited version of which reads;

Then there breaks forth a brood of whelps from the lair of the savage lioness, in three cyulae (keels), as it is expressed in their language, but in ours, in ships of war under full sail, with omens and divinations… They sailed out, and at the directions of the unlucky tyrant, first fixed their dreadful talons in the eastern part of the island, as men intending to fight for the country, but more truly to assail it. To these the mother of the brood, finding that success had attended the first contingent, sends out also a larger raft-full of accomplices and curs, which sails over and joins itself to their bastard comrades…. In this way were all the settlements brought low with the frequent shocks of the battering rams; the inhabitants, along with the bishops of the church, both priests and people, whilst swords gleamed on every side and flames crackled, were together mown down to the ground, and, sad sight! there were seen in the midst of streets, the bottom stones of towers with tall beam cast down, and of high walls, sacred altars, fragments of bodies covered with clots, as if coagulated, of red blood, in confusion as in a kind of horrible wine press: there was no sepulture of any kind save the ruins of houses, or the entrails of wild beasts and birds in the open… Some of the wretched remnant were consequently captured on |the mountains and killed in heaps. Others, overcome by hunger, came and yielded themselves to the enemies, to be their slaves for ever, if they were not instantly slain, which was equivalent to the highest service….Others, trusting their lives, always with apprehension of mind, to high hills, overhanging, precipitous, and fortified, and to dense forests and rocks of the sea, remained in their native land, though with fear. After a certain length of time the cruel robbers returned to their home.

450: The Herulo-Pictish-Frisians establish themselves in Scotland where one of their number, Ler/Koller/Coelho, establishes a dynasty remembered in the lineages of the Hen Ogledd.

455: After the Saxon conquest, we may assume that the Picto-Frisian-Herulians were using Britain as their new base. The ASC tells us that, ‘this year Hengest and Horsa fought with Wurtgern the king on the spot that is called Aylesford. His brother Horsa being there slain, Hengest afterwards took to the kingdom with his son Esc.’

456: Hydatius records seven ships of Heruli (totaling some 400 pirates) attacking a town in northern Portugal, after which they pillaged ‘most viciously‘ other areas of northern Spain on their way as they returned to their naval base in Gaul.

457: The ASC tells us, ‘this year Hengest and Esc fought with the Britons on the spot that is called Crayford, and there slew four thousand men.The Britons then forsook the land of Kent, and in great consternation fled to London.’

458: As the Herulian pirates headed for the straits of Gibraltar, Hydatius reports them attacking northern Portugal again, ‘with excessive brutality.‘ Hydatius was even taken prisoner for three months by a smaller group of Heruli. These events could well connect with the Gildas reference to the Saxon invaders, who ‘after a certain length of time the cruel robbers returned to their home.’ Fascinatingly, Gildas follows up that statement by a record of the Britons challenging, ‘their victors to battle under Ambrosius Aurelianus.’ The dates sit well with a passage in Roger De Hovedon, who tells us, ‘in the year of grace 464, the Britons sent messengers into Brittany to Aurelius Ambrosius and his brother Uterpendragon, who had been sent there for fear of Vortigern, beseeching them to come over from the Armorican country without delay, to drive out the Saxons and king Vortigern, and take the crown themselves. As they had now arrived at man’s estate, they began to make preparations of men and ships for the expedition.’

465: The ASC tells us, ‘this year Hengest and Esc fought with the Welsh, nigh Wippedfleet; and there slew twelve leaders, all Welsh. On their side a thane was there slain, whose name was Wipped.’

478: While visiting the Western Gothic king Eurich in Toulouse, Sidonius Apollonaris recorded seeing certain Herulians with a rather poetical flourish, which places the Heruls presumably on the north west fringes of Europe beside the Atlantic;

Here the Erulian roams, who lives at the sea-weed filled corners at the farthest ends of the Ocean–the Erulian with blue eyes almost the same colour as that of the ice-cold sea.

488: The ASC tells us, ‘Aesc obtained the throne & was king o fthe people of Kent for twnty-four years.’

498: Just for fun, this one. After Bede places the activities of Ambrosius Aurelianus during the 17 year reign of the eastern Roman Emperor Zeno (474-491) Roger DeHovedon has Ambrosius dying in the year 498, when;

There appeared a star of wonderful size and brightness, with a single ray, on which was a ball of fire extended like a dragon, out of whose mouth proceeded two rays, one of which seemed to extend its length beyond the regions of Gaul, and the other, verging towards the Irish Sea, terminated in seven smaller rays. Struck with terror at this sight, Uther anxiously inquired of liis wise men what this star portended. They made answer, ” The star and the fiery dragon under the star, are thyself; the ray which stretches towards the region of Gaul, portends that thou wilt have a very powerful son, who will possess the extensive territories which the star covered ; the other ray signifies thy daughter, whose sons and grandsons shall successively possess the kingdom of Britain. Hasten, therefore, most noble prince; thy brother Aurelius Ambrosius, the renowned king of Britain, is dead ; and with him has perished the military glory of the Britons.

Confirmation for this dating of the death of Ambrosius comes from the 6th century Chronicle of Edessa, which tells us that for many days during January 499, there was seen a great comet ‘like a spear.’

508: According to the Pictish King lists, Galan Erilic, ie Galan the Herulian, becomes the Pictavian monarch. Through this occasion, and on the wings of our hyperbasis, let us sweep to the far west of Scotland and the island of Skye, where the Galan name could remain in that of the Cuillin range of mountains. Returning to the Pa Gur poem once more, we read that just before the battle against the Cynocephali at Edinburgh, the Arthurians fought against the same foes in the ‘fastnesses of Dissethach.’ The name connects to Tig Scathach, the ‘Fort of Scathach’ found on the island of Skye. Scathach is a legendary figure in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology, a Scottish warrior woman whose homelands were Alpae, i.e. Alba. This is the moment where most historians stop their research into the affair. The thing is, we moderns must probe deeper & look for these combinations elsewhere in the records, & in this chapter’s case, our Hyperbasis certainly feels to be on the right track.

To conclude, the Herulo-Picto-Frisians, those Eotens who were connected to the Oghgul race, were a definite presence in Dark Age Britain. We must here acknowledge the use by Big Geoff of the name Ambrones, which he attached to a collective body of Picts, Huns & also Saxons. The name is not used elsewhere, & I hesitate to attach it to  the Herulo-Picto-Frisians without further investigations. However I do hope to have assembled enough evidence to show that when different branches of historical evidence/research are rooted in the same entity, then they can be assumed as being the same entity. In essence, instead of just assuming there is a chisper in place, we are tracing the chisper back to its source & then out again. This is a Factotree, & may be used to further secure any potential & preproscribed conjectural chispers. Another bonus of this chapter is to show how we cannot simply define a tribal group as one cohesive, untainted whole, & most be open to the comglomaragated nature of human society. In a similar context, when studying the Thurinigian settlement of Anglo-Saxon tribes, HM Chadwick writes;

The true explanation therefore seems to be that the settlers were a congeries of different nationalities which Lothair & Sigibert had brought together into the lands vacated by the Saxons.

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This Autumn

Chapter 11:  Kidd’s Treasure

Chapter 12 : 09-01-11

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chisp cover

CHISPOLOGY

Chapter 1: The Exodus
Chapter 2: The Aryan Invasion
Chapter 3: The Mahabharata
Chapter 4: Agastya
Chapter 5: The Picts
Chapter 6: Brunanburh
Chapter 7: The Young Shakespeare
Chapter 8: Shakespeare’s Blossom
Chapter 9: The Badon Babel Tree
Chapter 10: The Saxon Advent

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THE CHISPER EFFECT

chisper_effectChapter 1: Chispology 
Chapter 2: Princess Scota
Chapter 3: The Ithica Frage
Chapter 4: The Jesus Jigsaw
Chapter 5: Asvaghosha
Chapter 6: Dux Bellorum
Chapter 7: Dux Pictorum
Chapter 8: The Holy Grail
Chapter 9: The Mandylion
Chapter 10: Shakespeare’s Grand Tour
Chapter 11: The Dark Lady
Chapter 12: The Ripper Gang