Monthly Archives: February 2018

Chispology 5 : The Picts

 —————————————————————————————–

chisp cover

Continuing the serialization of

Damian Beeson Bullen’s

CHISPOLOGY

In which a few more of the world’s greatest mysteries… are finally solved

Available to buy in book form, 18-04-18

 ————————————————-

Over the weekend I watched the extremely compulsive story-viewing that is Netflix’s version of the Unabomber case. As I watched, I began to experience & identify a great collection of Chispers, & also the birth of ‘Forensic Linguistics’ which Chispology also makes use of. The greatest of the chispers was the way a woman changed her description of the Unabomber over a period of six years. The first version was accurate, but the second description was actually of the original police sketch artist. The show also explained how the expression ‘have you cake & eat it too’ was flipped in the 16th century to, ‘eat your cake & have it,’ & we’ve been saying it wrong ever since. What has all this got to do with the Picts? Very little, but just as the Unabomber was caught by the guy who invented & named Forensic linguistics, so hope I to solve certain historical mysteries that have proven as elusive as did the identity of the Unabomber.

This week we shall move back to my preferred territory, the legends of Dark Age Britain. For over seven years now I have continuously unearthed, analyzed & assembled a number of new clues & thought-strands that shine a series of illuminative candles upon the Matter of Britain. These tales sprung from a period in history when a fermenting Britain would slowly crystallize into the three kingdoms of England, Scotland & Wales. The story is a bloody one, soaking the soil a deep crimson from Cornwall to the Orkneys, as these kingdoms were fought for, & died for, on a series of battlefields thought lost forever. Researching the Matter of Britain has been something of a jigsaw puzzle – all the pieces were there, it was just a case of finding them in the depths of unread manuscripts, analyzing their value, & then assembling them to paint a cohesive picture. Many historians have given these pieces colour, from scanty historical hints found in Dark Age hagiographies, to the vague, uncertain chronicles of the Middle Ages; from medieval Icelandic sagas, to the epic efforts of the 19th century mega-scholar, William Skene. At another most erudite time, up in the National Library of Scotland, I was helped by a charming Classics expert, Dr Ulrike Hogg, who helped me to translate a thorny piece of medieval Latin.

The British Dark ages begins with the arrival on the islands of the Picts, the first truly documented tribe of Britain. Despite the Celts first coming to Britain c.500 BC, just their grass-topped Iron Age forts & a handful of archeological relics are all we really have to construct their past. The Picts, however, despite being a most mysterious entity, at least left some trails in the historical record. Most of these are in the form of monumental stones scattered across ‘Pictavia,’ full of mysterious symbols. I did propose the Herulian & the Sowilaz symbols being present in the Chisper Effect, but these are two among many, & as yet the rest are undecipher’d. A little more information on the Picts can be discovered here & there. Nennius recorded c.830 AD that the Picts, ‘occupied the Orkney Islands; whence they laid waste many regions, and seized those on the left hand side of Britain, where they still remain, keeping possession of a third part of Britain to this day.’ In the 7th century English historian, venerable Bede, gives us more detail of their first coming to the island;

When the Britons, beginning at the south, had got possession of the greatest part of the island, it happened that the nation of the Picts from Scythia, as is reported, putting to sea in a few long ships, were driven about by the blowing of the winds, and arrived in Ireland, beyond all the confines of Britain, and put in on the northern coasts thereof, where, finding the nation of the Scots, they asked, for themselves, also, a settlement in those parts, but could not obtain it… The Scots answered that the island could not contain them both. “But we can,” said they, “Give you wholesome advice, what you may do. We know there is another island, not far from ours, to the eastward, which we often see at a distance, on clear days. If you will go thither, you can settle there, or, if any should oppose you, you shall have our assistance.”

map-peoples

Bede tells us that the Picts came originally from ancient Scythia, the very homelands of the Hyksos, whose territories correspond roughly to the vast area of south central Russia; from the Ukraine to Kazakhstan & creeping into the steppes of northern Iran. Despite the distance between ancient Scythia & the mountain fastnesses of northern dark age Britain, both cultures are bound by vivid, animal-based art. Some of these symbolic depictions were imprinted in the form of tattoos, a practice given to the Picts by several classical authors, including;

Most of the regions of  {northern} Britain are marshy, since they are flooded continually by the tides of the ocean; the barbarians are accustomed to swimming or wading through these waist-deep marsh pools; since they go about naked, they are unconcerned about muddying their bodies. Strangers to clothing, they wear ornaments of iron at their waists and throats; considering iron a symbol of wealth, they value this metal as other barbarians value gold. They tattoo their bodies with colored designs and drawings of all kinds of animals; for this reason they do not wear clothes, which would conceal the decorations on their bodies. Extremely savage and warlike, they are armed only with a spear and a narrow shield, plus a sword that hangs suspended by a belt from their otherwise naked bodies. They do not use breastplates or helmets, considering them encumbrances in crossing the marshes.  Herodian of Antioch

Barbarians, who from childhood have different pictures of animals skillfully implanted on their bodies, so that as the man grows, so grow the marks painted on him; there is nothing more that they consider as a test of patience than to have their limbs soak up the maximum amount of dye through these permanent scars Solinus

Similar body-tattoos were found on the frozen bodies (including the penis) of both a Scythian chieftan & a twenty-five year old warrior-priestess, discovered in the same region of Siberia. It seems no coincidence that the chieftan still retained a bright red mop of hair, a Pictish trait still retained in 13 percent of Scotland’s population, as compared to only two percent of the world’s population. Other cultural links include a sea-goddess image at Meigle in Perthshire which matches Scythian goldwork found in the Ukraine; & a stone figure discovered on Boa, an island in Northern Ireland, is nigh-identical to a Scythian Kurgan Stele from Kyrgyzstan. It should also only take a cursory glance at the Pictish Beast symbol to see it is a match for the Scythian Ibex.

download

Also surviving the rigors of time are several versions of what is known as ‘The Pictish King List,’ which I utilsed quite heavily in my Arthurian investigations. In them may be found the origin story of the Picts in Britain. Of these, version D relates that they, ‘came from the land of Thracia; that is, they are the children of Gleoin, son of Ercol. Agathirsi was their name. Six brothers of them came at first, viz, Solen, Ulfa, Nechtan, Drostan, Aengus, Leithenn.’ Further gloss can be found in William Skene who relates how the earliest Picts established themselves first on the Orkney Isles, before moving into the northern portions of the mainland.

The children of Gleoin, son of Ercol, took possession of the islands of Orcc, that is, Historend, son of Historrim, son of Agam, son of Agathirsi, and were dispersed again from the islands of Orcc; that is, Cruthne, son of Cinge, son of Luctai, son of Parthai, son of Historech, went and took possession of the north of the island of Britain, and his seven sons divided the land into seven divisions; and Onbecan, son of Caith, son of Cruthne, too the sovereignty of the seven divisions.

There is one name of great import regarding our investigation – Agathirsi. These, ‘painted Agathyrsians,’ as described by Virgil, were given more detail in the 380s by Ammianus-Marcellinus as the, ‘Agathyrsi, who dye both their bodies and their hair of a blue colour, the lower classes using spots few in number and small – the nobles broad spots, close and thick, and of a deeper hue.’ That the Agathyrsian nobility possessed more tattoos is mirrored by the Picts, whose non-native name was, according to Isidore of Seville, ‘taken from their bodies, because an artisan, with the tiny point of a pin and the juice squeezed from a native plant, tricks them out with scars to serve as identifying marks, and their nobility are distinguished by their tattooed limbs.’ The Agathirsi also appear in the writings of Scotland’s 16th century writer, Hektor Boece’s ‘History & Chronickles of Scotland;’

Nocht lang efter, a banist pepill, namit Pichtis, come furth of Denmark, to serche ane dwelling place; and, efter that thay war inhibit to land baith in France, Britane, and Ireland, thay landit in Albion. Sum authouris sayis, thay come first in Orknay; and, sone  efter, in Cathues, Ros, Murray, Mernis, Angus, Fiffe, and Louthiane: and expellit all the pepill, that inhabit that region afore thair  cuming. Thir pepill war callit Pichtis, outhir for thair semely personis, or ellis for the variant colour of thair clething; or ellis thay war namit Pichtis, fra the Pichtis namit Agathirsanis, thair anciant faderis. In probation heirof, Orknay wes calht the auld realme of  Pichtis. Siclike, thee seeis betwix Cathnes and Orknay war namit Pentland Firth ; and all the landis, quhilkis ar now callit Louthiane, war callit than Pentland.

To summarise the medieval Scots, Boece’s research states that the Picts named their ‘anciant faderis’ as Agathirsanis, they were Danish in origin (as opposed to Scythian) & they settled all along Eastern Scotland, from Orkney to as far south as Lothian. It is in Boece’s Agathirsanis that we see a name anciently recorded as ‘Agathyrsi,’ by Herodotus. A tribe of mixed Dacian-Scythian origin, Herodotus placed them in the plain of the Maris (Mures), in Romanian Transylvania; ‘from the country of the Agathyrsoi comes down another river, the Maris, which empties itself into the same.’ Herodotus then describes the Agathyrsi as being quite a sexually liberated bunch;

The most luxurious of men and wear gold ornaments for the most part: also they have promiscuous intercourse with their women, in order that they may be brethren to one another and being all nearly related may not feel envy or malice one against another. In their other customs they have come to resemble the Thracians

As we have seen, the Thracian element was presented in the King List, which stated the Picts, ‘came from the land of Thracia… Agathirsi was their name.’ Herodotus also pontificates on a Pontic Greek myth which has Agathyrsi being named Agathyrsus, eldest son of Herakles & brother to a certain Skythes. Knowing now that Herakles was a Hyksos king, then we may suppose that his son, Agathirsi, led the Hyksos conquest of Thrace. By the time of Herodotus, this section of the Hyksos diaspora had moved north to Transylvania. But we veer too far from the point of this essay, which concerns the establishment of the Picts in northern Britain. A clue comes with Skythes, the brother of Agathirsi. This name transchispers into Sketis, an island in Ptolemy’s 2nd centry AD ‘Geography’ which appears roughly where the Shetland islands, or the Sketland islands, should be. This is properly calculable by analyzing Ptolemy’s clearly erroneous map of Scotland. Apart from the lands above the firths being tilted 90 degreees on their, what is also noticeable is that there are four island blocks off the north-east corner of Britain; Dumna, Sketis, the Orcades archipelago & Thule.

IMG_20160512_035026

2000px-OrkneyShetlandConstituency.svg

If we tip a map of Scotland 90 degreees on its axis to the east, then we can see how the position of the Orkneys & Shetlands correlate to Ptolemy’s Dumna & Sketis. This suggests that Ptolemy – who never really left the Meditterranean – used two separate travellers accounts for this part of the world, which became superimposed upon each other, creating the four island blocks. This means that the four islands are actually two, that Dumna & the Orcades are the Orkney Isles, & that Sketis & Thule are the Shetlands, & that Ptolemy had performed a rather interesting creochisp.

All very well, but an earnest chispologist will always strain to find support for one’s theories. Thus, in the very centre of the Orkney archipelago there is a small, flat islet called Damsay, whos e name we might suggest had derived from Dumna. Further down the babel-chain we arrive at Domnu, the Celtic goddess of the Summer Solstice. She is described as the Mother of Water who absorbs and reflects the rays of the sun as it climbs towards it’s annual zenith. A place so far north as the Orkneys would be a perfect place to celebrate the unbroken sunlight of midummer. This could explain the submerged constructions found at Damsay, which may have been involved in Domnu-worshi, as described by Caroline Wickham-Jones of Aberdeen University. Speaking to the BBC in 2009, she explained;

We have certainly got a lot of stonework. There are some quite interesting things. You can see voids or entrances… There’s this one feature that is like a stone table – you’ve got a large slab about a metre and a half long and it’s sitting up on four pillars or walls so the next thing we need to do is to get plans and more photographs to try and assess and look for patterns. The quality and condition of some of the stonework is remarkable. Nothing like this has ever been found on the seabed around the UK

That Ptolemy’s Thule was Shetland is supported by both Pliny & Strabo, who made note of a comment by the fourth century BC Greek geographer, Pytheas, that Thule was a six-day voyage north of Britain. In the terms of antiquitial voyaging seems about right. In 54 BC, for example, it took Ceasar eighteen hours to sail from Boulogne to Dover. More evidence is quite decisively summarised by the sixteenth century historian, William Camden;

But if that of the learned Gaspar Peucerus, in his Book De Terræ Dimensione, be true, that Schetland is by the Seamen call’d Thilensell (and I know no reason to except against his testimony) Thule is undoubtedly discover’d, and the Controversie at an end… Schetland is the same with Thule, we may believeit lies between Scotland and Norway; where Saxo Grammaticus places Thule… And Tacitus says, that the Romans spy’d it afar off, as they sail’d by the Orcades in their voyage round Britain. Lastly, it faces the coast of Bergæ in Norway; and so lay Thule, according to Pomponius Mela

Moving to the settlement of the Picts in Scotland, William Camden gives us some information about the early Pictish settlement of Scotland, recording that at, ‘the time of Reuther King of Scots,’ a battle was fought in which the death of a certain, ‘Gethus King of the Picts… constrain’d the Picts (who perceived themselves unable to resist) to fly, some by land and others by sea, to Orkney, where they abode for a time, and made Gothus, brother of the foresaid Gethus, their King. And after a few years, having left some of their number to people and plant the Countrey, they return’d to Louthian; and having expelled the Britons, settled themselves again in their ancient possessions.’ Here we see that the two main bases of the earliest Picts were the Orkneys & Lothian, the latter being only a philochisp away from Leithenn, one of the six Pictish brothers who first came to settle in Britain. To many, Lothian is named after a 6th century king called Loth who dwelt on Traprain Law, East Lothian. But what is more likely is that this King was named after the region, as in King X of ‘Leithenn.’ What is also fascinating is that in Big Geoff’s History of the Kings of Britain, King Loth was recognised as a king of both Lothian & the Orkneys.

Returning to William Camden’s account, he provides a passage in which the mainland across from the Orkneys – Caithness – seems named after either Gethus or Gothus;

Now Orkney, being a cluster of thirty Isles, separated from one another by little arms of the Sea: they are said in a certain old manuscript to be so call’d from Argat, that is (as it is there explain’d) Above the Getes: But I had rather interpret it, Above the Cat; for it lies over-against Cath, a Country of Scotland, which, from the promontory, is now called Catness; the Inhabitants whereof seem to be falsly called, in Ptolemy, Carini instead of Catini

Whatever ‘certain old manuscript‘ Camden was using, it definitely gave the Caithness region an original name of Getes, with the Orkneys being ‘above them.’ That the G & C are interchangeable can be seen in two historical notices of the Pictish kingdom of Cat. In the Pictish Chronicle, the seven kingdoms of the Picts are given as, ‘Fib, Fidach, Floclaid, Fortrenn, Got, Ce, Circinn,’ while the Irish translation of the Historia Brittonum  states their names are Cait, Ce, Cireach cetach cland, Fib, Fidach, Fotla, Foirtreand.’

According to Scottish historiography, the Scottish king Reuther married the daughter of Gethus. His nephew, Cianus, was taken prisoner in the Orkneys during the Roman invasion of Britain, 43 AD. This means that Gethus lived about a generation earlier, around 10 AD. This date is slap-bang in the middle of a two century period of broch building in the Pictish north. Like stars a darkening night sky, these Pictish roundhouses began springing up across Caithness, the Orkneys & the Shetlands, in the very heartlands of Gethus & co. Among them, on the Shetlands, an island called Mousa is home to the greatest all the Scottish brochs, which has been dated to about 100 BC.

brochs_map

Combining literature & archeology, we can see that the earliest Pictish waves hit northern Britain in the century or two before Issa-Jesus. Before the name ‘Picti’ was attributed to this woad-painted peoples by later Roman writers, they were recorded as being ‘Caledonians,’ as in Ptolemy’s list of Scottish tribes;

Next to the Damnoni, but more toward the east near the Epidium promontory are the Epidi and next to these the Cerones; then the Carnonacae, and the Caereni but more toward the east; and in the extreme east dwell the Cornavi; from the Lemannonis bay as far as the Varar estuary are the Caledoni, and above these is the Caledonian forest, from which toward the east are the Decantae, and next to these the Lugi extending to the Cornavi boundary, and above the Lugi are the Smertae

A century on from Ptolemy, Cassius Dio notes that the Caledonians had become the chief tribe in northern Scotland; ‘there are two principal races of the Britons, the Caledonians and the Maeatae, and the names of the others have been merged in these two. The Maeatae live next to the cross-wall which cuts the island in half, and the Caledonians are beyond them.’ Confirmation that the Caledonians were considered to be Picts is first found in the anonymous Panegyric Latine, written c.314, which refers to, ‘the forests and marshes of the Caledonians and other Picts.’ Thus, in his Agricola, when Tacitus describes the, ‘red hair and large limbs of the inhabitants of Caledonia,’ we are given a good match for the red-headed Scythians such as the ‘Gelonusian Scythians,’ who Herodotus depicted as possessing deep blue eyes and bright red hair.

Instead of trying to subdue these half-naked, wild-eyed Caledonian warrior, the Romans erected two great walls across the breadth of Britain to keep them out of the empire. To this day the southern wall, named after Emperor Hadrian, more or less marks the start of Scotland. The northern version – the Antonine Wall – stretches between Edinburgh & Glasgow, & links the the two natural barriers that are the Firths of Forth & Clyde. In between these fortifications lie the Scottish lowlands, while beyond the Antonine Wall stretch the vast & empty Highlands as far as John o’ Groats. Over the ages, both regions developed a separate identity, but still proudly count themselves to be Scottish. It can be assumed that the very essence of modern Scotland was created in the wake of the Roman failure to conquer the Picts. The greatest manifestation of their defiance of Rome came at the Battle of Mons Graupius, 83AD. It was fought several years after the great Roman general Agricola launched his epic attempt to finally subdue the north of Britain. His opponent was Calgacus, who actually appears as the properly dated Gilgidi in the Pictish King Lists, between Brude Urmund & Tharain. In order to challenge the march of Rome, Calgacus unified all the Caledonian tribes into one power bloc, to whose warriors he gave a speech on the eve of battle that would have inspired such mighty leaders as Robert the Bruce & William Wallace. It is recorded in the only literary record of the battle contained in the ‘Agricola,’ with Agricola being the general at Mons Graupius & Tacitus his flattering son-in-law. Calgacus speaks;

download (1)

When I consider the motives we have for fighting and the critical position we are in, I have a strong feeling that the united front you are showing today will mean the dawn of liberty for the whole of Britain. You have mustered to a man, and all of you are free. There are no lands behind us, and even on the sea we are menaced by the Roman fleet. The clash of battle – the hero’s glory – has now actually become the safest refuge for a coward. Battles against Rome have been lost and won before; but hope was never abandoned, since we were always here in reserve. We, the choicest flower of Britain’s manhood, were hidden away in her most secret places. Out of sight of subject shores, we kept even our eyes free from the defilement of tyranny. We, the most distant dwellers upon earth, the last of the free, have been shielded till today by our very remoteness and by the obscurity in which it has shrouded our name. Now, the farthest bounds of Britain lie open to our enemies; and what men know nothing about they always assume to be a valuable prize. But there are no more nations beyond us; nothing is there but waves and rocks, and the Romans more deadly still than these – for in them is an arrogance which no submission or good behaviour can escape. Pillagers of the world, they have exhausted the land by their indiscriminate plunder, and now they ransack the sea. A rich enemy excites their cupidity; poor one, their lust for power. East and West alike have failed to satisfy them. They are the only people on earth to whose covetousness both riches and poverty are equally tempting. To robbery, butchery, and rapine, they give the lying name of “government”; they create a desolation and call it peace.

The location of Mons Graupius has never been satisfactorily identified, & has become quite a touchy subject among historians. But mysteries are there to be solved, & it won’t be the first, nor the last. It is through a detailed analysis of the evidence that I believe the battlefield’s location has been accurately ascertained. We begin with the only evidence we have for a Roman presence beyond the Antonine Wall, being the remains of a dozen-strong chain of  ‘marching forts’ the legions erected as they pressed north with Agricola. To avoid the impassable mountainous terrain of the Cairngorms, the forts were built in a long procession stretching from Dundee to Inverness, along the eastern side of Scotland. Agricola was a shrewd & canny general, & his march maintain’d contact between his fleet & his soldiers, siting many of the camps near the sea. Tacitus records; ‘he explored the harbours with a fleet, which, at first employed by him as an integral part of his force, continued to accompany him. The spectacle of war thus pushed on at once by sea and land was imposing; while often infantry, cavalry, and marines, mingled in the same encampment and joyously sharing the same meals.’

One of these camps has been tentatively proposed as the site of Mons Graupius solely on account of its name, Victoria, being the Latin for victory. Using co-ordinates given by Ptolemy, several sites have been suggested for Camp Victoria, the best candidate being Battledykes, near Fortrose. To my mind, this camp was actually the site of a battle that took place the year before Mons Graupius. Tacitus tells us that the Caledonians;

…with their whole force attacked by night the ninth Legion, as being the weakest, and cutting down the sentries, who were asleep or panic-stricken, they broke into the camp. And now the battle was raging within the camp itself, when Agricola, who had learnt from his scouts the enemy’s line of march and had kept close on his track, ordered the most active soldiers of his cavalry and infantry to attack the rear of the assailants, while the entire army were shortly to raise a shout. Soon his standards glittered in the light of daybreak. A double peril thus alarmed the Britons, while the courage of the Romans revived; and feeling sure of safety, they now fought for glory. In their turn they rushed to the attack, and there was a furious conflict within the narrow passages of the gates till the enemy were routed. Both armies did their utmost, the one for the honour of having given aid, the other for that of not having needed support. Had not the flying enemy been sheltered by marshes and forests, this victory would have ended the war

It makes sense that the Picts would have attacked the Romans at Battledykes, for it lies only ten miles from Dundee/Alectum, the very place in which dwelt, according to Hector Boece, the Pictish King during the Graupius campaign. Topographically, a visitor to the site in 1786, a certain Jameson, describes Battledykes as containing two burial tumuli – the detritus of a significant battle – & that the camp back’d onto a marsh, linking to the ‘marshes and forests’ into which fled the defeated Caledonians.

Roman_fortificationsinnorthernScotland2

After securing this power base, Tacitus tells us that the Romans pushed north, a portion by sea & another group led by Agricola, who advanced, ‘with a lightly equipped force, including in its ranks some Britons of remarkable bravery, whose fidelity had been tried through years of peace, as far as the Monte Graupius, which the enemy had already occupied.’ A similar route was taken in 1746 by the Royalist forces under the Duke of Cumberland on their way to fight Bonnie Prince Charlie & his highlanders at the Battle of Culloden. Prior to 83 AD, the Caledonians had rarely faced the Romans in open conflict, preferring instead guerilla warfare or night-attacks on camps. Agricola knew that his legionairres were highly trained soldiers who needed conventional warfare in order to excel. The description of them being lightly equipped indicates a swift march to catch the Caledonians as they were collecting en masse. Evidently successful in the rapid endeavour, Tacitus tells us; ‘30,000 armed men were now to be seen, and still there were pressing in all the youth of the country.’  Eventually, the Caledonian army would swell by another 20,000 warriors, as related by Boece’s, ‘our old annals say that fifty thousand men were in arms.’ The Battle of Mons Graupius was definitely on, but where?

Picts

Situated twenty-five miles east of Inverness, nestling salubriously beside the Moray Firth, & a stone’s throw from one of the best fleet-sized harbours in Scotland, lies the charming town of Forres. The ‘mons’ of Mons Graupius would be Cluny Hill, which towers over Forres to the south. A number of iron-age burial barrows also litter the area, sugegsting some possible conflict in an area in which all the topographical clues found in Tacitus coalesce. Assembling these helps us to paint a mental picture of the battlefield, which would have contained, in the following order;

SEA – CAMP – PLAIN – HILL – WILDERNESS

Sea: A significant textual clue given in the speech of Calgacus says that the Romans were; ‘few in number, dismayed by their ignorance, looking around upon a sky, a sea, and forests which are all unfamiliar to them; hemmed in, as it were, and enmeshed, the Gods have delivered them into our hands.’  We have also seen how Agricola preferred to be close to his supply-ferrying fleet.

Camp: The temporary Roman camp at Balnagieth, Forres – Ptolemy’s Pinnata Castra – shows all the hallmarks of Agricola’s strategic mind, of whom, ‘it was noted by experienced officers that no general had ever shown more judgment in choosing suitable positions.‘ On one side Balnageith is protected by the River Findhorn, standing just a couple of miles upstream from a beautiful sea-harbour. The fort is 234 metres long, at least 70 meters wide & surrounded by a 3 metre wide ditch, while,‘it is possible that the camp was possessed of six-post corner-towers and that the front of the rampart was revetted in timber, which would suggest a more permanent encampment. (Britannia xxii (1991) p.226 & fig.4.) Agricola’s presence this far north is suggested by a number of Roman finds in coins in the area, minted in the name of pre-83AD Roman emperors such as a Vespasian (disc. at Garnout) & a Nero (disc. At Fortrose). In the very streets of Forres, GDB Jones records a November 1797 find of several Roman coins & a Roman medallion, while the same streets yielded a Domitian coin (r.81-96AD) in 1844. There was also a coin dated to the narrow reign of Titus (79-81AD) found at Forres, close to a Pictish monument known as Sueno’s Stone.

Plain: The Battle of Mons Graupius was fought, not on a Mons, or peak, but on a largeish plain which seperated the Roman Camp from the hill on which the Caledonians had gathered. Tacitus tells us, ‘the plain between resounded with the noise and with the rapid movements of chariots and cavalry. Agricola, fearing that from the enemy’s superiority of force he would be simultaneously attacked in front and on the flanks, widened his ranks.’ There ground to the west of Forres, through which runs the River Findhorn, by which was erected Balnageith, is a very level plain. From heart of Forres rises today’s Cluny’s Hill, which if I am correct was Mons Graupius.

cluny

Hill : Where Tacitus describes,the enemy, to make a formidable display, had posted himself on high ground; his van was on the plain, while the rest of his army rose in tiers up the slope of a hill,’ the presence of tiers indicates that the ‘mons’ was quite steep. We may also infer from the text that Mons Graupius was not a smooth, single-peaked feature; possessing instead several peaks; ‘those of the Britons who, having as yet taken no part in the engagement, occupied the hill-tops.’ Cluny Hill is also multi-peaked, which today houses the eco-living lovers that are the Findhorn Foundation, & is also home to an impressive Lord Nelson monument. Two millenia ago, it harboured a massed confederacy of Caledonian tribes, all ready to face the alien invaders. It was a defendable spot, for Although absent from modern maps, a nineteenth century O/S map shows that there was once a ‘British Camp’ on Cluny Hill;

Wilderness : To the south of Forres fans a rough & wild landscape, matching Tactius’ description of the fleeing Caledonians, ‘dispersing and avoiding one another, they sought the shelter of distant and pathless wilds.’ The Forres area also contains a match for, ‘the silence of desolation reigned everywhere: the hills were forsaken, houses were smoking in the distance,’ for circular remains of several fire-destroyed Pictish houses were found in a recent dig at Clarckly Hill in Forres.

Forres was clearly an important place in the Pictish consciousness, for in the vicinity can still be seen parts of the oldest Pictish hill-fort at Burghead. Three times larger than any other Pictish hillfort, when Tacitus tells us that at Mons Graupius, ‘the Britons, indeed, in no way cowed by the result of the late engagement, had made up their minds to be either avenged or enslaved, and convinced at length that a common danger must be averted by union, had, by embassies and treaties, summoned forth the whole strength of all their states,’ we can see how Burghead once stood at the centre of the Caledonian world & the perfect rallying point for the meeting of the tribes. Curiously, there is a large Romanesque bath carved at Burghead whose origin has never been explained.

150px-Suenos_Stone

Close by Burghead stands the wonderful Sueno’s Stone, whose face depicts an ancient battle scene. At 6.5 meters tall, this Pictish monument is the largest & most impressive piece of stonework ever produced by the Picts. While one side has been adorned with an immaculately carved Christian cross, the other depicts the multi-layered story of a great battle. Scholars have scratched their many heads over which battle it was, but surely the most magnificent piece of Pictish artwork must now be associated with the most important military moment of the Caledonians. One can imagine the King of the Picts commissioning the monument – (which according to Timothy Pont’s Mapp of Murray c 1590 had another obelisk standing beside it) to honour his ancestors on the actual site of the battle. The battle is depicted by four main panels, being.

1 – A badly weathered top panel containing several rows of cavalry.
2 – An upper-central panel showing the Caledonians led by a large, central kilted figure. Below him there is an infantry battle taking place.
3 – A lower-central panel showing decapitatied bodies, musicians & a Pictish broch.
4 – The bottom panel showing mounted warriors, archers and foot-soldiers gathered around a tent.

Analyzing the images in detail leads us to many known features of the battle of Mons Graupius as told by Tacitus;

SC01409220Two separate cavalry forces: Agricola… opposed their advance with four squadrons of cavalry held in reserve by him for any sudden emergencies of battle. Meantime the enemy’s cavalry had fled

Archers: The action began with distant fighting. The Britons with equal steadiness and skill used their huge swords and small shields to avoid or to parry the missiles of our soldiers, while they themselves poured on us a dense shower of darts

Corpses and decapitated heads:The open plain presented an awful and hideous spectacle… Everywhere there lay scattered arms, corpses, and mangled limbs

An infantry battle: Agricola encouraged three Batavian and two Tungrian cohorts to bring matters to the decision of close fighting with swords

Soldiers with small shields & large swords: An enemy armed with small bucklers and unwieldy weapons

Other features depicted on the stone reflect the battle. The stone’s ‘broch’ is clearly the hillfort at Burghead, while the kilted war-leader must surely be Calgacus. In addition, the tent represents the Roman camp, while the three musicians blowing trumpets are marvellously remembered in the area at Culbin Sands just to the north of Forres by Findhorn Bay, for it is there that three Roman trumpet brooches were found. Culbin Bay would have been the watery site of Agricola’s anchorage, at whose shore a silver signet ring used to authenticate Roman documents has been found.

The Sueno Stone’s erection seems dated to the ninth century, for its side panels contain vine patterns filled with men similar to that century’s Book of Kells. This leaves us looking at a wealthy patron of the period with the will & wealth to erect a memorial to the greatest battle of the ancestral Picts. Of these, Donald II was considered to be the very first king of a united Scotland – that is a land of both Scots & Picts – & he is said to have actually died in Forres in c.900 AD. That the town was thus used by the royal court is confirm’d by the Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland, which states; ‘the oldest notices of the place that exist from contemporary documents are in connection with the castle, which stood on a green mound at the W end of the town, now known as the Castle Hill. A northern bard has declared that;

Forres, in the days of yore,
A name ‘mang Scotia’s cities bore,
And there her judges o’er and o’er
Did Scotland’s laws dispense;
And there the monarchs of the land
In former days held high command.
And ancient architects had planned,
By rules of art in order grand,
The royal residence.

A very old source of Scottish history, the Prophecy of Berchan, declares that Forres was ‘abundant’ during Duncan’s time. All we need to do here for everything to make sense is imagine Duncan erecting those two pillars at Forres to celebrate the great battle of Mons Graupius, the duality of which represented his own dual-monarchy. At first we may presume it strange that Duncan would want to celebrate what the Roman’s called a great victory,  with Agricola even being awarded a triumphal entry into Rome. Yet, as Winston Churchill once declared, ‘history is written by the victors,’ & where Tacitus tells us that, ‘About 10,000 of the enemy were slain; on our side there fell 360 men,’ Hector Boece tells a rather different story; ‘our annals record that twelve thousand Romans died in that unhappy conflict, and about twenty thousand Scots, Picts, and auxiliaries.’  What is true, is that in the wake of the battle of Mons Graupius the Romans hardly ever ventured this far north again, & it is easy to see how the Caledonians would have slowly but surely looked upon Mons Graupius as the moment they dismissed tribal rivalries, bonded as a fighting force & fought to a standstill the might of Rome in open conflict. Just as we moderns erect memorials to great battles of the past, to celebrate their ancestral heroism the Picts erected a fabulous memorial of the day the Romans came to town, Sueno’s Stone.

Ptolemy

One final clue that nails the Forres-Graupius connection comes after the battle, when Agricola is said to have, ‘led his army into the territory of the Boresti. He received hostages from them, and then ordered the commander of the fleet to sail round Britain.’The name of this otherwise unrecorded tribe allows us to make the folowing babel chain.

Boresti
Bar est
Var est
Varar est
Varrest
Forres

It must be noted that the legion which fought at Mons Graupius was the Ninth, which was Spanish in origin. The possibility that Tacitus would hear a ‘b’ when a ‘v’ was intended is made evident in later centuries when Spanish dialetical pronunciation of the Latin language changed v’s to b’s. Elsewhere in Roman Latin, vs & bs were interchangeable, such as the Etruscan town of Volsinii evolving into the Roman Bolsena. Thus the name ‘Boresti’ flows through into the Varar Aest placed by Ptolemy on the south shore of the Moray Firth, ie in the very vicinity of Forres; ‘from the Lemannonis Sin as far as the Varar Aest are the Caledoni, and above these is the Caledonian forest.’

After spurning the Roman enslavement at Forres, the Picts of Scotland managed to hold on to their identity all the way through the Roman reign of Britain. History tells us that at one point, a certain tribal group affiliated with the Picts known as the Attocotti ended fighting in the Roman legions as an auxillary group. Their identity has for a long time been puzzled over, but it is through the Chisper Effect that we may properly ascertain their identity. Our quest begins with Ptolemy’s Geography, & the island of Sketis as seen earlier. It is in alternate versions of Ptolemy that the same island is given the variant name, Ocitis, which contains a clear phonetic match to the ‘Cotti’ of the Attacotti, & also the Agathyrsoi.

Ocitis
Att-acotti(s)
Agothis
Agathyrsoi

The name Attacotti turns up in the 4th century, when Ammianus Marcellinus describes as, ‘a warlike race of men’ fighting alongside the Picts & Scots in what is known as the ‘Barbarian Conspiracy’ of the mid 360s.

It will, however, be in place to say, that at that time the Picts, divided into two tribes, called Dicalydones and Verturiones, as well as the Attacotti, a warlike race of men, and the Scots, were ranging widely and causing great devastation; while the Gallic regions, wherever anyone could break in by land or by sea, were harassed by the Franks and their neighbours, the Saxons, with cruel robbery, fire, and the murder of all who were taken prisoners.

Folliwing Count Theodosius’ restoration of Roman order in Britain, the Attacotti were recruited to fight as auxilia palatina in the legions. The evidence for them on the continent comes in the Notitia Digitatum, compiled about 400 AD, which lists four Attacotti auxillary regiments as fighting in the Roman Legions, two of of whom, the ‘Honoriani Atecotti seniores’ & the ‘Atecotti iuniores Gallicani,’ were stationed in Gaul. It is members of these units that St Jerome observed getting up to some rather bestial behaviour c.393AD; ‘why should I speak of other nations when I, a youth, in Gaul beheld the Attacotti, a British tribe, eat human flesh, and when they find herds of swine, cattle, and sheep in the woods, they are accustomed to cut off the buttocks of the shepherds, and the paps of the shepherdesses, and to consider them as the only delicacies of food.’

For a long, long time, scholars have speculated on the homelands of the Attacotti, but to no avail. But of course we modernsmay utilise chispology, & it is while looking at an Ogham inscription inscribed upon an obscure Pictish stone that I hit paydirt. Etched into what is known as the Lunnasting Stone on the Shetlands, Forsyth in 1996 tells us;

ettecuhetts: ahehhttannn: hccvvevv: nehhtons

Chispologically speaking, Ettecuhetts is a lovely match for Attacotti, especially when we combine two variant spellings in the Notitia; the ‘attecotti’ & ‘attcoetti;

Ette-cuhett(s)
Atte-coett(i)

Two of inscription’s other names can also be knitted together with supporting historical informaton. ‘Ahehhttannn’  could be Aedan, for  in 580 AD the Annals of Ulster describe; ‘The expedition to Innsi Orc by Aedán son of Gabrán. Cennalath, king of the Picts, dies.’ Looking at the ‘Nehhtons’ name, this could be Nechtan son of Canu, of whom the Annals of Ulster tell us died in 620. Both the Irish tale, the Scela Cano meic Gartnain & the Senchus fer n-Alban show how Gartnait’s son was called Cano, which gives us the following approximate genealogy.

Aedan (b.c520) – King of the Scots
Gartnait (b.545) – King of the Picts
Cano (b.570) – Fate unknown
Nechtain (b.595) – King of the Picts

If the inscription’s ‘hccvvevv’ is actually Canu, as in ‘hC-vowel-e=n-vowel,’ then the inscription may translate something like,  ‘Nechtan son of Canu, son (or gandson) of Aedan, of the Attacotti.’

Elsewhere on the Shetlands, at a place called Cunningsburgh, a stone’s throw from the Agathyrsi capital broch on Mousa, another Pictish stone, although weathered, also seems to mention the Attacotti at the start of the inscription.

+TTEC[O^G][–] | [–]A[V^BL]:DATT[V][B!][–] | [–][A!]VVR[–]

 The proximity of this inswcription to the likely Agathyrsi capital at Mousa supports a possible philocship between the ‘acotti’ element of Attacotti & the ‘agathy’ of Agathyrsi. In Latin, ‘et’ means both, which could would render Attacotti with a translation of  ‘both acotti.’ Historical support may be found in the writings of the Roman grammarian Maurus Servius Honoratus (c.400), whose commentary on the works of Virgil relates how about the year 300 AD, the Agathyrsi sent across a contingent over the sea to Scotland, where it became identified with the Picts. It is as this second wave of Agarthyrsean immigrants joined with the earlier Agarthyrsi/Acotti, that the comblended union would become the dualistic ‘Attacotti.’

_65653487_traprainteasure
the Traprain Treasure

AtecottiComparison

In the first segment of this chapter we saw how the Picts left their Lothian possessions on the death of King Gethus, but later on in time returned to their lands in Lothian. What is remarkable is that in the Lothian regions, at Traprain Law, the capital of the Votadini tribe, a silver horde was found in which the shield pattern of the Honoriani Attacotti Seniores seems to have been replicated on a silver plate. This image is a reconstruction by Alice Blackwell of the National Museum of Scotland, based upon fragments found in the horde.

65686551_largedish

Coinage in the horde determines that it was deposited during the reign of emperor Honorius himself, while to the equasion we must add the presence of King Loth, a 6th century Pictish king, remembered as ruler of both the Lothians & the Orkneys. Historians have often been a tad bemused at this double kingdom, but we can now see that he was in fact the ruler of the ‘Attacotti’ in the 6th century. To this we can also imagine that the etymology of Gododdin – a  version of the Votadini – could also be connected to the ‘Cotti’ of Caithness, etc – where the Pictish chronicle calls them Got.

papil03Looking at the Notitia shield patterns, it is with the ‘Honoiani Atecotti Juniores’ that a real clincher can be found. Their shield carries a curious image of two heads facing each other, with at least one of them seeming to be a bill-beaked bird. An extremely similar image appears on a Pictish stone discovered in 1887 at a pre-Norse Christian site called Papil, West Burra, in the Shetlands. The name Papil comes from papar – a Nordic word for priests – & was removed to the National Museum in Edinburgh, though a replica still stands in the churchyard of St Laurence’s Church, Papil. Kelly A Kilpatrick, in his ‘The iconography of the Papil Stone: sculptural and literary comparisons with a Pictish motif’ (Proc Soc Antiq Scot, 141 (2011), 159–205), writes of the birdmen;

 They have commonly been regarded as a misrepresentation of the Temptation of St Antony, but this theory is debatable and needs to be compared and contrasted within the wider framework of this motif in Irish and Pictish art. Examples of axe-brandishing human and beast-headed figures are, however, found in Pictish sculpture, and are comparable with the imagery on the Papil Stone. Furthermore, the bird-men motif on the Papil Stone has striking parallels with contemporary battlefield demons in early Irish literature… The Papil bird-men have a stronger connection with axe- and weapon-carrying hybrid & monstrous human-like figures in Pictish sculpture. 
A dog-masked man found at Cuningsburgh
There are 10 similar examples in the corpus of Pictish sculpture, three of which, it should be emphasised, have bird-features. They occur as single figures or as single figures associated with an animal or beast, & also as paired figures like the Papil bird-men. They must have had a long currency in Pictish art, for they are found on a variety of monumental media, ranging from simple incised stone boulders to panelled motifs on elaborate cross-slabs and even on a sculpted shrine panel.
Of the BirdManesque artistic tallies mentioned above, the image of a dog-masked man found at Cuningsburgh, Shetland, where there was an inscription to the Attacotti, seems the most important. Also of interest is a stone found at Murthly, Perthsire.  When comparing it with the Juniores shield pattern, we see that to the left is the long-beaked bird & to the right is the stubby-nosed dog or boar.

Whatever is the exact case, the Attacotti shield-symbol can also be seen in the Pictish iconography of the Shetlands seems absolutely convincing evidence which when placed beside the ettecuhetts inscriptions nail the Attacotti to those windswept, sea-whipped islands. In 2016, on discovering the solution, the Shetland Times printed a rather strange version of my Attacotti theory, which they allowed to be intercepted by the curator of the island’s main museum. ‘Probably not,’ said the local academic Dr Ian Tait without presenting any evidence to the otherwise, the standard response from an academic community who are – in the early 21st century – quite unaware of the possibilities of the Chisper Effect. For them, the Unabomber is still out there.

13007234_1624277921230491_6502203127876165898_n (1)

There is one final chisper to look at before we go. Where the Picts of Bede & Nennius came from Scythia, according to the Hektor Boece, ‘a banist pepill, namit Pichtis, come furth of Denmark.’ In the Chisper Effect I showed how there was a Herulian wave into the Pictish royal line, through whom I would hedge my bets that the symbol stones were introduced across Pictavia. The power-base of the northern Herulians was Scandinavia, which now explains how Boece said the Picts came from Denmark, in the same breath as stating they were also part of the Agathyris. Here we see a classic example of genduction – ie the reducing of two or more people or peoples into a single entity.

——————————————-

Next Wednesday, 28/02/17

Chapter 6:  Egil Skallagrimsson

—————————-

chisp cover

CHISPOLOGY

Chapter 1: The Exodus
Chapter 2: The Aryan Invasion
Chapter 3: The Mahabharata
Chapter 4: Agastya

***

***

***

—————

THE CHISPER EFFECT

chisper_effectChapter 1: Chispology 
Chapter 2: Princess Scota
Chapter 3: The Ithica Frage
Chapter 4: The Jesus Jigsaw
Chapter 5: Asvaghosha
Chapter 6: Dux Bellorum
Chapter 7: Dux Pictorum
Chapter 8: The Holy Grail
Chapter 9: The Mandylion
Chapter 10: Shakespeare’s Grand Tour
Chapter 11: The Dark Lady
Chapter 12: The Ripper Gang

Chispology 4: Agastya

 —————————————————————————————–

chisp cover

Continuing the serialization of

Damian Beeson Bullen’s

CHISPOLOGY

In which a few more of the world’s greatest mysteries… are finally solved

Available to buy in book form, 18-04-18

 ————————————————-

In the last chapter I brushed almost incidentally upon the fact that Jesus was a poet who, while in India, was responsible for (among other things) the Bhagavad Gita. In this, the next chapter of my chispological investigations, I would like to return to my Indian Jesus in order to introduce further avatars of that most remarkable man. We begin with a Persian text known as the Siraj-ul-Maluk (1306), which reads;

 Where is Isa, the Ruhullah, and, the Kalimatullah, who was the leader of the righteous, and the chief of travelers?

 Here we have Isa, the Islamic name for Jesus, clearly described as the ‘Ruhullah’ from ‘Kalimatullah.’ This latter name philochisps into Cholamandalam which means ‘realm of the Cholas,’ an Indian dynasty who ruled over the coastal regions of Tamil Nadu. This is the clear & startling evidence that at some point Jesus – the ‘chief of travelers – lived in southern India. A near identical version of ‘Ruhullah’ can  be found in a Buddhist scripture known as the Vinaya Pitaka, in which a section called the Mahawaga records a future successor to the Buddha who would go by the name of ‘Rahula.’ Furthermore, the mother of this man was a certain ‘Magdaliyana,’ whose name we can easily see transchispering into the Mary Magdelane of the Gospels.

The statue of Thiruvalluvar, off India's southernmost point
The statue of Thiruvalluvar, off India’s southernmost point

There is more, I am a both a student & a translator of the great body of didactic Kural composed by the Tamil saint, Thiruvalluvar, round about the age of Christ. When we drop the ‘Thi’ element from Thuiruvalluvar’s name – which is the Tamil version of the Sanskrit Sri, meaning ‘holy’ or ‘saintly’ – we are left with, ‘Ruvalluvar,’ which is then only a small philochisp away from ‘Ruhullah.’ In the Chisper Effect I showed how Saint Thomas was killed in the very village – Mylapore – that Thiruvalluvar was said to have lived. ‘The first Portuguese historians,’ recorded Father Henry Hosten. ‘say that St. Thomas built his ‘house,’ meaning his church, on the site where a Jogi had his temple.’  This Church was built upon an ancient Hindu site called Kapaleeswara, the ‘eeswara’ element immediately connecting to the ‘Ishavarakrishna’ avatar of our Indian Jesus.

Sensing that Jesus was Thiruvalluvar removes the word ‘coincidence’ from the matter & implies something much more profound. It seems likely that Jesus-Issa had at some point set up some kind of ashram at Mylapore, & that Thomas had journeyed there to study at the feet of his master. Presupposing that Jesus had a hand in the creation of the Kural, it is unclear whether they were his own personal compositions, or the work of some Tamil poet recording his holy wisdom in the same fashion as that which the author of the Matthew Gospel collated the Sermon on the Mount. Tantalisingly, the poetry itself may give us a clue, for the Kural takes, to all extents & purposes, the same form as the Latin epigramme, which had been made extremely popular in the first century AD by poets such as Martial.

That Thomas and Thiruvalluvar are both associated with Mylapore seems no coincidence, especially when we encounter the assemblage of Jesusian sayings known as the Gospel of Thomas. Discovered near Nag Hammadi, Egypt, in only in 1945, this obscure Gospel is actually just a collection of 114 brief & wise sayings of Jesus made by a certain ‘Didymus Thomas.’ In the same fashion, the Kural of Thiruvalluvar are presented as brief proverb-like nuggets of wisdom, maintaining a similar air & atmosphere to those of Thomas’ Gospel;

Jesus said, “He who will drink from my mouth will become like me. I myself shall become he, and the things that are hidden will be revealed to him.” (GoT)

Around pleasant, intelligent speakers
People swiftly gather (TK)
————–
Jesus said, “Whoever finds the world and becomes rich,
Let him renounce the world.” (GoT)

Prefer destitution’s stark minimalism
Possessions befuddle mind (TK)
———————
Jesus said, “Fortunate is the man who knows where the brigands will enter, so that he may get up, muster his domain, and arm himself before they invade.” (GoT)

Adherence of wise counsel
Frightens our enemies (TK)

Whoever wrote the Kural must have been (i) an excellent poet, (ii) extremely fluent in Tamil & (iii) aware of the Roman epigrams of poets such as Martial, which were so much in vogue in the First Century AD.  It is by placing Jesus-Issa in southern India that allows us to make the following babel-chain, rooted in the Asvaghosha avatar of Jesus-Issa.

Agastya - looks a lot like Jesus
Agastya – looks a lot like Jesus

Asv-Aghosh-a
Agas-t-ya

Agastya was one of the great poet-saints of south India, fitting into our jesus-Issa blueprint quite effortlessly. Of course, a babel-chain is only valid when supported by evidence, & in this instance we may count on the services of a great deal of source material. We begin with the charming story of Agastya found in a text called, ‘The Jatakamala,’ a selection of 4th century collection of Sanskrit tales made by Aryassra concerning the previous births (jati) of the Buddha. In them we find a passafe which has great correspondance with Mir Muhammad bin Khawand Shah Ibn-i-Muhammad’s Hazrat Issa avatar of Jesus;

While staying in the grove of penance, the Great-minded One, being in the habit of giving, continued also honouring the guests that happened to arrive, with such roots and fruits as he had just gathered, with fresh water and such hearty and kind words of welcome and blessings as are appropriate to ascetics, and himself lived on as much of his forest-produced food as his guests had left, strictly limiting his meals to the sustenance of his body Jataka

Hazrat Issa… wore a woollen scarf on his head, and a woollen cloak on his body. He had a stick in his hand; he used to wander from country to country and from city to city. At nightfall he would stay where he was. He ate jungle vegetables, drank jungle water, and went on his travels on foot. Mir Muhammad

 Other pieces which link Agastya to the Jesus Jigsaw include;

(i) The Ramayana describes Agastya as the, ‘brilliantly glowing sage among those sages,’ and the, ‘sun-like radiant sage Agastya.‘ He is said to have had the ability to make his physical body disappear completely and resurrect as a glow of light inside a subtler vibrational field. This act is highly reminiscent of the Transfiguration of Jesus found in the Gospels, which state; ‘Jesus took Peter, James, and John his brother, led them up on a high mountain by themselves; and He was transfigured before them. His face shone like the sun, and His clothes became as white as the light.’ (Matthew 17:1-2)

(ii) Like Jesus, Agastya was followed by twelve iconic disciples. Abithana Chintamani names them as, ‘Tiranatumakkini alias Tolkappiya Munivar, Atankottacan, Tiralinkan, Cemputcey, Vaiyapikan, Vayppiyan, Panamparan, Kalarampan, Avinayan, Kakkaipatiniyan, Narattan & Vamanan.’ Here we can see Thomas embedded as ‘tuma’ in Tiranatumakkini; Peter embedded as the Latinized ‘patini’ in Kakkaipatiniyan; Nathaniel in Narattan and James embedded in ‘Cemputcey.’

(iii) Agastya could render his body in a state of suspended animation at will, a meditative state known as samadhi. Yogic masters slow their breathing and heart rate down to such an extent that they would appear dead to the onlooker. This is surely the most important connection between Agastya and the New testament Jesus, for it tells us the exact way in which the latter avatar survived the Crucifixion. A text known as the Nathanamavali, conserved in the Aravalli mountains by a group of ascetics known as Nath Yogis, lend such a notion support by saying, when its says, ‘Isha Natha came to India at the age of fourteen. After this he returned to his own country and began preaching. Soon after, his brutish and materialistic countrymen conspired against him and had him crucified. After crucifixion, or perhaps even before it, Isha Natha entered samadhi by means of yoga.’

Agastya had his traditional stomping grounds in the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu; with the Tamil grammatical treatise called the Tolkappiyam, said to have been written by a disciple of Agastya known as Tholkappiyar. Dated by most scholars to the first or second century AD, it describes a migration from north India of led by Agastya. The migration began somewhere north of the Vindhya mountains, a range which geographically separates the Indian subcontinent. To this day, all across Tamil Nadi, Agastya remains a highly venerated saint. It is surprising how a northern, Aryan has been taken so much to heart by the Dravidian Tamils, but we must remember we are not dealing with an ordinary man here. The spirit, message and remembrance of Jesus has already crossed multiple international barriers – whether it be through his Judean avatar, or another – and it comes as no surprise to learn that the Tamils have their own version as well.

India_map2_m

Tamil Nadu & its beautiful people are very proud of their place in the world – a wee look on the map of India and you can see that Tamil Nadu is remarkably similar to the Irish landmass, in size, and shape, and of course, spirit. This strong sense of patriotic self-identity was born out of repelling a constant stream of invasions from the north, plus several attempts by the various owners of Delhi to impose Hindi as the national Indian language.  India’s southernmost state is a traveller’s dream, and leaving Chennai with Victor Pope in late 2013, we set out on a rattlesnake of a tour across the vasty land of the Indian Tamils. We eventually came to Chidambaram, a town which spreads out for a mile or so in all directions from its centerpiece – the tremendous Nataraja Temple. It is a great feeling being there in the early morning, when the heat is soft and the colours turn pastel in the rising light. A very religious place, it is overseen by white-robed Brahmins, whose hair is tied back and scrunched into buns. Their ancient ancestors were sent there by King Hiranyavarman, his leprosy being healed in the natural spring-waters of the Ghat. This is a beautiful green, fish filled pond, where the Brahmins and orange-clad babas wash themselves (brushing their teeth in the same water), while etched into marble plates all round the ghat is a beautiful selection of Tamil poetry.

Chidamburam
Chidambaram

Photo2088_001

After a night’s stay in Chidambaram, I set off the following morning early, catching an 8AM bus to Veeitheswara (Eswara = Ishvara = Jesus), a cute little townlet famous for Nadi Astrology. The originator of the system was of course, Agastya, and for two thousand years the Nadi priests have maintained his philosophies, the core of which state that the past, present and future lives of all humans were foreseen by Hindu sages in ancient times. The Nadi prophecies were written on palm leaves in Vatteluttu, an ancient Tamil script said to be composed by Agastya through divine revelations. While sitting in a small roadside shack at Veeitheswara, eating rice and fish with my hands from a banana leaf, I was happy I had made such a long journey south. All in all, Agastya fits so snugly into the Jesus Jigsaw, his status as an avatar is pretty much ensured. So, after washing my hands and clutching my new lead with relish, I set off eagerly out into the Tamil hinterland in search of more clues.

Following the trail of Agastya would lead us to a certain corner of the Western Ghats, the great chain of mountainsto the west of the Indian peninsular. In ancient Tamil, Pothgai was known as the Podiyil Hill, of which place the Shilappadikaram refers to Agastya as being ‘the great sage.’ Legend describes how Agastya was sent south by the god Siva to counterbalance the effects of so many gods and rishis residing upon Mount Kailash. While Agasyta was at Pothgai, Siva married Parvati in the Himalayas, and forgetting to invite Agastya, the latter became considerably upset about being overlooked on such an important occasion. To make it up to Agastya, Siva and Parvati travelled to the Pothgai and got married all over again, with Agastya being the only guest.

In ancient Tamil, Pothgai was known as the Podiyil Hill, of which place he Shilappadikaram refers to Agastya as being ‘the great sage.’ Agastya is said to have wandered the area searching for natural ingredients to assist his Siddhar medical treatments, and to this day, one can visit 21st century siddhars who will treat a patient with the same ayervedic methods as those used by Agastya two thousand years ago. One of his medicinal preparations – Boopathi Kuligai – could even bring the dead back to life! Although the text is now lost, his medical book is said to have contained instructions for the creation of medicines for multiple ailments, such as fevers, cancers, abdominal problems, and eye problems. This reminds us of the Gospelic Jesus, who is constantly and consistantly praised for his healing powers; treating paralysis, lameness, fevers catalepsy, haemorrhaging, skin diseases and mental disorder. There is also the ‘marhami-i-isa,’ or ointment of Jesus, described by Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad as being recorded, ‘in hundreds of old medical books,’ which could have come from the Siddhi system. We can also sense a hint of a correlation between the ‘Agastya Rasanayam’ (an ayurvedic cure for asthma)  and the numerous mentions in the 2nd century Jewish Tosefta of cures and charms inscribed with the name of Jesus.

Jesus using ancient Siddar techniques to cure blindness
Jesus using ancient Siddha techniques to cure blindness

Of the many branches of Siddha medicine; Choondu Varma (mesmerism) and  Kirikai Chikisai (psychiatry) could well have been the medical disciplines on which Jesus drew in order to cure those possessed by demons (Mark 1:23-27). Another Siddha-Jesus connection comes with the curing of ophthalmological disorders, which we may discern from Dr PJ Thottham’s, ‘certain oils believed to have a cooling effect are applied to the head. They keep the nervous system active and healthy. Among other types of medicine are the ones instilled into the eye, such as mais or kattus which are rubbed on a stone, along with the juice of a plant, milk, coconut water or rose water. The resultant paste is applied into the eyes with the help of a stick. Similarily, there are certain medicines in a paste form, which are applied externally on the eyelids of the patient.’ This method, of creating a paste to rub into the eyes of the afflicted, has an intimate resonant tone with the curing, by Jesus, of a blind man,

When he had thus spoken, he spat on the ground, and made clay of the spittle, and he anointed the eyes of the blind man with clay. And said unto him, ‘Go wash in the pool of Siloam. He went his way therefore, and washed, and came seeing. John 9:7

Photo2320-1024x768
Approaching Mount Potolakla

All this leads us to the special moment in the Jesus Jigsaw when we need to introduce what is known as a ‘Boddhisatva,’ one of the holiest entities in Buddhism. These are considered to be divine savior-figures, and are described as enlightened (bodhi) existence-beings (sattva), said to have attained Buddhahood in order to help all sentient beings. His name is Avaloketisvara, the later part of whose name transchispers easily into Ishavara. As for Avaloketisvara’s connection to Pothgai, known as Mount Potalaka to the Chinese, let us examine his mentions in two ancient texts, both of which designate Pothgai as this diety’s place of residence;

The merchant’s son Sudhana… arrived in due order at mount Potalaka, and climbing Mount Potalaka he looked around and searched everywhere for the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara. Finally he saw the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara on a plateau on the western side of the mountain in a clearing of large woods abounding in young grass, adorned with springs and waterfalls, and surrounded by various trees. He was sitting cross-legged on a diamond rock surrounded by a multitude of bodhisattvas seated on rocks of various jewels. He was expounding the dharma-explanation called ‘the splendour of the door of great friendliness and great compassion’ belonging to the sphere of taking care of all sentient beings Gandavyuhasutra

To the east of the Malaya mountains is Mount Po-ta-lo-kia. The passes of this mountain are very dangerous; its sides are precipitous, and its valleys rugged. On the top of the mountain is a lake; its waters are clear as a mirror. From a hollow proceeds a great river which encircles the mountain as it flows down twenty times and then enters the southern sea. By the side of the lake is a rock-palace of the Dêvas. Here Avalôkitêsvara in coming and going takes his abode. Those who strongly desire to see this Bôdhisattva do not regard their lives, but, crossing the water, climb the mountain forgetful of its difficulties and dangers; of those who make the attempt there are very few who reach the summit Xuanzang

In the description by Xuanzang, a 7th century explorer from China,  of his epic pilgrimage to the summit of Po-ta-lo-kia, the sentence, ‘of those who make the attempt there are very few who reach the summit,‘ confirms the peak as being Agastya’s Pothgai. In a festival known as the Agastya Mala, it takes a week to visit the mountain and pay homage to the small temple dedicated to Agastya on its summit; a three day ascent, a day of resting, and a three day descent. Wanting to see the place for myself, I journeyed from Pudokotai to the Tamil town of Ambasaamudram. On arriving, Victor & I discovered that to visit the mountain we had to go in from the Kerala side, gaining permission from Trivandrum forestry commission en route. Not to be deterred, we took a hotel for the night, where a kindly local on a walk around town (i) pointed out the mountain in the distance, a cone-shaped edifice erupting out of its less aesthetic shadowy cousins of this portion of the Western Ghats,  & (ii) agreed to help us get as close as possible the following morning!  What followed was a glorious day with driver and guides, wandering about the gorgeous green uplands of the Western Ghats, searching for the residue of Agastya. Travelling with locals helped us cruise through the security checks, and we had a splendid time – including a dip in a powerful waterfall at the Agastya Falls.

Photo2254-1024x768

Near the falls we were led to a magnificently evocative rock-carved temple dedicated to Agastya, which lay on a cliff above a small lake, and could have even been the one mentioned by Xuanxang. Another highlight was a boat-trip across a man-made dam, whose surrounding scenery was more beautiful than anything I’ve seen even in Scotland! Unfortunately, this was as close as I was going get to Pothgai – but I did not mind at all; the day had been a splendid one, and we returned to Ambasamudram in fine spirits. That night, while Victor regaled the hoteliers with songs on his acoustic guitar during the nightly power-cut, I began to compile my notes on Avaloketisvara, said to have once roamed this splendid portion of the Western Ghats? He is in fact one of the main figures in what is known as the ‘Mahayana,’ or ‘Greater Vehicle,’ a branch of Buddhism whose origins seem to lie with our very own Asvaghosha. The 7th century Chinese explorer, I Tsing, describes hymns composed by Asvaghosha, which were chanted in the name of Avaloketisvara at the evening service of the monasteries. This suggests that Asvaghosha was the creative brain behind Avalokekitsevara, whose name translates something like, ‘The Higher Lord (Ishvara) who looks down on the world.’

Another of Avaloketisvara’s titles, Mahâsattva, represents him as having reached the tenth & upmost level of the Boddhisattvas. Postponing their own entrance into the Nirvana in order to alleviate the suffering of others, the notion rings remarkably close to the core tenets of the Christian belief. The notable twentieth century Indologist, Arthur Llewellyn Basham, remarked that, ‘the Bodhisattva was thought of as a spirit not only of compassion but also of suffering. In more than one source we read the vow or resolve of the Bodhisattva, which is sometimes expressed in almost Christian terms… The idea of the Suffering Savior might have existed in some form in the Middle East before Christianity, but features like this are not attested in Buddhism until after the beginning of the Christian era. The Suffering Bodhisattva so closely resembles the Christian conception of the God who gives his life as a ransom for many that we cannot dismiss the possibility that the doctrine was borrowed by Buddhism from Christianity.’

Guanyin with child - quite like the Mary-Baby Jesus motif
Guanyin with child – quite like the Mary-Baby Jesus motif

There are other Christian elements in the mythography of Avaloketisvara. Just as Jesus was known as the son of god, so Buddhists say that Avaloketisvara was born from the Amithaba, a father-figure said to rule over a heavenly ‘Pure Land‘ established for the salvation of man. Another aspect of Avaloketisvara is the ‘Guanyin,’ said to be a saviouress, and considered to be the ‘Mother of all Buddhas.’ In Chinese art and sculpture she is represented as holding a child, just as Christians depict Mary, the Madonna, bearing the infant Jesus. More evidence comes through iconic portrayals of Avaloketisvara as sporting small circular wheel-marks on his hands and feet, in the very places that the crucifixion scars would be. Professor Fida Hassnain says, ‘examination of the Buddhist icons show all Boddhisattvas stand or sit on a lotus throne. Some show their hands and plams with round marks. These statues of the Mahayana period, with marks on palms and feet, symbolically depict wounds of crucifixion. This fact is immortal evidence about the identity of Jesus as the teacher of the Mahayana monks.

There is also an interesting passage contained in the text known as the Lutus Sutra, which seems to describe the stigmata acquired by Jesus during his crucifixion, as in, ‘then bodhisattva Avalokitesvara extending his right hand with the splendour of the purest gold, releasing clouds of arrays of perfect networks of immeasurable light, and putting his palm which was like a blossom with tendrils, adorned with marks and tokens, distinctive, taintless, producing immeasurable beams of lights.’ The last key sentence is a perfect description of a hand devastated by the driving of a large nail through its centre. The description is found in the 24th chapter of the Lotus Sutra, which also contains a key passage in relation to the Jesus Jigsaw. It reads;

So asked, the Lord replied to the Bodhisattva Mahasattva Akshayamati: There are [some] worlds, young man of good family, [where] the Bodhisattva Mahasattva Avalokitesvara preaches the Dharma to creatures in the form of a Buddha […] To some [beings] he preaches the Dharma in the form of a Pratyekabuddha […] To some [beings] he preaches the Dharma in the shape of a Brahma […] [to those] who are to be converted by Mahesvara, he preaches assuming the form of Mahesvara.

Here we have it openly admitted that the spiritual emanations of Avaloketisvara appear in different forms according to whatever religion perceives it. This connects neatly to the Bhavisya Suta, in which Ishavara Putaram was described as preaching to the Kashmiri Jews ‘through their own faith.’ The passage also mentions the Mahesvara, another name for Siva, whose connection to the Jesus Jigsaw we shall look at another time. There’s far too many avatars flying about at the moment as it is!

Having traversed the entire length of the subcontinent from Ladakh in the Himalayan north, to the sultry shores of Tamil Nadu, our journey through the Jesus has reached its southern limits. A few miles from the tourist-hungry town of Kanyukamari, lapped by the waves of three separate seas, where the Indian government erected a giant statue of Thiruvalluvar to celebrate the new Millennium, the Ramayana itself places Agastya in the vicinit. Here, says the poem, Agastya sang his self-penned hymn to Rama before the hero went to Sri Lanka to fight his great duel with the demon Ravana. I had the very hymn & full epic poem with me as I visited the hay-strewn streets of the idyllic village of Agasteeswaram, a few miles inland from Kanyakumari, India’s most southern point. A village legend remembers an occasion when Agastya himself was teaching the local inhabitants the Ramayana, & a temple was erected on the spot. On my personal visit to this sacred site, I had reached the furthest limits of my research expedition, an epic journey which had taken me from the dusty cloisters of the National Library in Scotland to the extreme south of the Indian subcontinent. Standing in the upper limits of the colossal statue of Thiruvalluvar, I passed a sunset watching the sea-waves roll into land from three different directions. To the east lay the Bay of Bengal, to the south the Indian Ocean, and to the east the Sea of Araby. For myself, at that moment, they represented the presence of Jesus in three different religions – Hinduism, Buddhism & Christianity – which travelling in different directions, would all converge upon a single point in space and time.

Abhayagiri Stupa
Abhayagiri Stupa

Somewhere to the south-east lay the island of Sri Lanka, in which place the Matsya Purana – a history of ancient India – describes Agastya as a native of Sri Lanka. Traces of the Jigsaw can be found here, and it is most probable that Issa went to the island to study at the cutting edge Buddhist Therevedan Abhayagiri monastery. In more recent years, Dr Andrew Skilton, professor of Religion at the University of London, comments, ‘It is clear from sculptural evidence alone that the Mahayana was fairly widespread throughout Sri Lanka…. Relics of an extensive cult of Avalokitesvara can be seen in the present-day figure of Natha.’ There is one Mahayanan text in particular that originated in Sri Lanka that is of great interest. Known as the Lankavatara Sutra, it has the Buddha discoursing with Ravana, the traditional foe of Rama. Suzuki writes of it, ‘the Lanka is a memorandum kept by a Mahayan master, in which he puts down perhaps all the teachings of importance accepted by the Mahayan followers of his day… there is no doubt that the Lanka is closely connected in time as well as in doctrine with The Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana generally ascribed to Asvaghosa.’

It was while in Sri Lanka, our Indian Jesus most likely established the Issarasamana ashram as mentioned in Sri Lanka’s first historical chronicle, the Mahawansa, in which we also encounter, in the same period, Yalalakatissa, a deviation of Avaloketisvara, which contains a prominent Issa element.

In our quest for the Indian Jesus our journey must take us once more to the serendipitous vale of Kashmir. In the modern-age, if we were to travel overland to Srinagar from Kannuyakamari, Indian’s most southerly point, it would take about 48 hours by train to Jammu, followed by a twelve-hour car journey through the Himalayan foothills. In the age of Jesus it would have taken a lot longer – a probable sea journey to the mouths of the Indus, followed by a mighty hike across the plains and up through the passes. Whichever way he got there, Jesus definitely made the journey north. The Persian History, the Ikmal-ud-Din by Shaikh Al-Said-us Sadiq, places Yuz Asaf in both Sri Lanka (Sholabeth) and Kashmir. Sadiq describes how Yuz Asaf was visited by an angel, after which he prostrated himself before God and uttered, “I submit myself to Thy command, O God Almighty! Enlighten me of Thy Will. I praise Thee and I am grateful to Thee for having guided me…The angel, therefore, guided him to leave the country…and then leaving Sholabeth he proceeded on his journey… after roaming about in many cities, reached that country which is called Kashmir. He travelled in it far and wide and stayed there and spent his (remaining) life there, until death overtook him, and he left the earthly body and was elevated towards the Light.’

We have already seen in the Chisper Effect how Jesus-Yuz Asaf was buried at Rozabal in Kashmir. That he lived a long twilight in the Himalayas is suggested by the Muslim tradition in which two texts – the Mustadrak and the Asabah – describe Jesus as having lived until he was 120 years old. Both of these texts draw on the words of a seventh century muslim cleric, Ibn Umar, who reported, ‘I have been told that there is no Prophet after other Prophet but he lives a life half then the one who lived earlier. And I have been told that Jesus, the son of Mary lived for a hundred and twenty years.’ (Hadith 37732).  This leads us to an account of the death of Jesus, as described by Sheikh-us-sadiq;

At the approach of death, he sent for his disciple, Babad. He was used to serving him and protecting him during his old age. He was perfect in all matters. Yuzu-asaph made a will, saying: As such, you should safeguard your duties and never deviate from the righteousness, and absorb yourself in prayers. He then gave directions about preparation of sepulchre for him, at the very place where he breathed his last. He then stretched his legs towards the west, and kept his head towards the east. He then turned his face towards the east, and breathed his last.

download (2)That Jesus lived for a hundred and twenty years may be difficult for many in our modern world to accept. Even so, this is just within the limits of modern human longevity (122 is the known record), and we should acknowledge Jesus was a healthy man, living in an era far from the cancer-causing, fatty toxicity of the chemicals which permeate our modern foodstuffs. He also a consummate master of medicine, whose knowledge of long-lost herbal remedies would have added to his personal life-span. It must be noted that the figure of 120 years appears in the Siddha tradition, as an attested life-length of several siddhi masters. They believe that if a man generally takes fifteen breaths a minute (21,600 a day), he could live for a period of at least 120 years.

That the author of the Matthew Gospel was in Tamil Nadu at some point can be seen in Jesus’ final words in that Gospel, as he was nailed to the cross: ‘now from the sixth hour darkness fell upon all the land until the ninth hour. About the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, ‘Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani.’ (27-45)

5ca1fa0064b40e349dc3f1a251f009c5

Rendering these words into Tamil, we obtain;

Eloi - El is used in Tamil for ‘god,’ but specifically a sun-god.

Lama - A Buddhist Saint – the primary lama being the Buddha himself.

Sabac – Becomes Savam in Tamil, which means ‘death.’ Similar ‘v’ to ‘b’ changes took place with Vengalam/Bengal and Viswas/Biswas.Tha - Give

NI – You

The full translation would be then rendered – O God O God O lama Death Give You – which is a perfect fit for the grammar of the Tamil language. It has been noticed by linguists that the Aramaic language of first century Judea contains many words found in Tamil, which could now be explained as having come through Agastya, who appears to have contributed much to the origins of that language. The comprehensive historian of all things Agastyan, KN Sivaraja Pillai, states, ‘Agastya had also to perform his civilizing work by systematizing the Tamil Language and founding the first Academy whence all culture flowed for the benefit of later generations,’ while the very language of Tamil is still known as ‘Agastyam.’ Recent archeological evidence has found traces of the Tamil language dating back to 1000 BC, meaning Agastya would fit into the history of Tamil as its great redresser, & a text such as the Thirukurral its Divine Comedy. Just as poets like Dante laid the roots for modern Italian, and Shakespeare the modern English, the Tamils seem to have accepted Agastya as the founder-father of their language. We must remember that the poetic Jesus was working in the highest realms of the art, where the creation of new words and rules of language would have come as easily as leaves grow on a tree.

f017v_crd

Before we leave Agastya, it just so happens that in the hills about the Siddha HQ near, Ambassamudrum, a plant known as Helleborus Niger grows wild. An image of the same plant also appears in the curious pages of the Voynich manuscript. Discovered in 1912 by Wilfrid Voynich, it has been described as the world’s most mysterious manuscript, mainly for the fact it is written in a language & script no-one has ever been able to crack – even the best codebreakers of WW2 failed to break into it. Carbon dating has given the ms an origin of the early 1400s, & is divided into the following sections;

1 – Drawings of plants, many of which are obscure
2- Astrological illustrations of the sun, moon & zodiac
3 – A biological section
4 – A pharmaceutical section
5 – A selection of recipes

theraiyar

For me, the Siddhi system of medicine seems an essential a mix of all the contents of the Voynich manuscript: herbalism, astrology, biology & pharmacology! The last of the Siddhars, Theraiyar, was active in the early 1400s, who was considered to be a supreme master of many fields such as astrology, mysticism, alchemy and medicine. He was also fluent in numerous languagesTelugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, Thulu and Sanskrit while his work on the classification of diseases, their managements and prognosi were highly respected. All these ingredients – the date, the subjects, the mysterious use of language – suggest he is the brain behind the original Voynich manuscript. An examination of the script shows a number of orthographical similarities to the Tamil, & I believe what Voynich MS is an actual European copy of a Siddha text, which was tinkered with here & there, such as introducing pictorial representations of western architecture.

sar_13_csample2
The Voynich manuscript
pic1
Tamil script from different eras
Bernie
Bernie

The original book arrived in Europe in the hands of a 15th century Italian alchemist named Bernard of Treviso. His meeting with Therayair in Alleppey, Kerala – transchispered here into Apulea –  was recorded by Bernard in a text known as The Allegory of the Fountain;

When I passed through Apulea, a city in India, I heard that a man resided there who was so very learned in every branch of Science, that he had not his equal in this world. He instituted as a Prize of disputation for all skilled in Art, a book… Therefore, desirous of honour, I did not doubt that my mind would assist me thereto and dispose me to the prescribed disputations, a very learned man adding spurs to my undertaking this province, and it also coming into my mind that the daring and bold were carried to sublime things, while the timid were thrown down and lived in perpetual dejection, I passed manfully into the field of contest and happily obtained the palm of disputation before the audience, and the book of premium was so honourably delivered to me by the faculty of Philosophy

I shall perhaps make a more thorough investigation of the Voynich manuscript, probably wandering the Tamil Ghats matching up flowers that grow there to the floral images found in the Voynich. Probably in my late 60s just before I embark on my decade long study of the Mahabharata. Until then, I would simply like to enjoy this moment, for the search for Agastya has been an incredibly satisfying investigation; after which a Tamil Jesus helps us to clear up a great deal of the historical smoke. But, we have spent far too long in the ancient east, its time to travel  back to my native island & answer that particularly native & often mind-raking question, just exactly who were the Picts?

——————————————-

Next Wednesday, 21/02/17

Chapter 5 : The Picts

—————————-

chisp cover

CHISPOLOGY

Chapter 1: The Exodus
Chapter 2: The Aryan Invasion
Chapter 3: The Mahabharata
Chapter 4: Agastya

***

***

***

—————

THE CHISPER EFFECT

chisper_effectChapter 1: Chispology 
Chapter 2: Princess Scota
Chapter 3: The Ithica Frage
Chapter 4: The Jesus Jigsaw
Chapter 5: Asvaghosha
Chapter 6: Dux Bellorum
Chapter 7: Dux Pictorum
Chapter 8: The Holy Grail
Chapter 9: The Mandylion
Chapter 10: Shakespeare’s Grand Tour
Chapter 11: The Dark Lady
Chapter 12: The Ripper Gang

Chispology 3 : The Mahabharata

 —————————————————————————————–

chisp cover

Continuing the serialization of

Damian Beeson Bullen’s

CHISPOLOGY

In which a few more of the world’s greatest mysteries… are finally solved

Available to buy in book form, 18-04-18

 ————————————————-

During my research trip to India in 2013, hard upon the trail of an oriental Jesus, & musing that Issa-Jesus could have visited the battlefield of Kurukshetra in order to write the Bhagavad Gita, I thought a visit to the very locale might assist my studies. Cue orange-clad holy men, chunky old bicycles, clouds of dust, a faint smell of spice, air like a white hot blanket and nobody speaking English anywhere. After an hour of utter confusion, I eventually made my way within a jewller’s shop, owned by a friendly English-speaking chap called Parikshit, who happened to share his name with Arjuna’s grandson. On enquiring about the battlefield’s location, he laughed and said I was standing in the middle of it, and that it spread around us in all directions for forty square miles. Moments later, Parikshit very kindly arranged a rickshaw for me, and I began to tour the ‘battlefield’ with its many monuments, memorials and temples dedicated to quasi-historical moments found in the greatest Indian epic poem, the Mahabharata.

Photo0166-1024x768
Taking notes @ Kurukshetra

Composed by a certain Vyasa, & approaching 100,000 slokas, or couplets, the MB is the world’s longest epic, concerning a great civil war of the Bharatas and the establishment of the Dhurmarajya, or universal sovereignty in that house. It still flourishes in the subcontinent to this day, an ever living, ever present inspiration to society, whose iconography & quotations are spread prolifically across the entire Hindu sphere. The poem is considered to be, ‘Vyasochchishtam Jagath sarvam,’ meaning ‘the whole world is the spit of Vyasa.’ This implies that the MB touches all topics & conditions of humanity, an encyclopaedia of early Indian culture & history whose allogerical teachings have been the guiding light of Hindus for millennia. Just how many millennia is the question I would like to investigate today.

IMG_20180206_081528571_BURST000_COVER_TOP IMG_20180203_115035319

Attempting to make any sense of the origins of the MB  is rather like getting caught up in a n extremely sticky spider’s web. It doesn’t take long to get a headache when analyzing the MB, & solving this particular problem is one for the supercomputers of the future – or about a decade in my seventies wandering India like a mad saddhu. But an attempt shall here be made – well at least a start. I first came across the ‘problem,’ in a little book I picked up in the south Indian mini-state of Pondicherry. I discovered ‘On the Mahabharata’ in the depths of a bookshop in Auroville, an international ashram established by the gosh-golly amazing Indian poet Sri Aurobindo. My blog at the time details my stay at the ashram. In it I use the word ‘litology’ in place of Chispology, which would be coined at some point over that winter.

 ————————————-

Since Chennai, Victor & I have trundled down the coast of Tamil Nadu, whose seas are not to be swam in, only admired from the safety of the shore. First port of call was Mamallapuram, a touristy place in which to eat fish & dawdle awhile, which we did for a couple of nights. The highlight for me was making use of a posh hotel’s swimming pool (£3 for two hours), followed by a poolside lunch for another £3 quid. Inbetween dips I worked on my version of the Thirukural & felt solace once again in my choice of vocation, where another man’s vacation becomes my personal office!

After a couple of nights we jumped on a bus south. The distance between Chennai & Kannayakamari, India’s southernmost point, is1000 kilometres, which is more or less the length of Britain. Thus, by reaching the Pondicherry area we have gone about as far, in comparative terms, as Aberdeen. Our actual residence has been taken up about ten miles from Pondy, in the spacious international ashram of Auroville. My first visit was back in 2002, an occasion on which I encountered a majestic & divine epic poem called Savitri, by the Oxford-educated ascetic Sri Aurobindo (born 1872).

Savitri-2-1024x768

It was the main work of his life, & is read out at the ashram once a week to devotees, an occasion which Victor & I were lucky enough to arrive for just in time. Auroville is also the world’s repositary of Aurobindo’s works, stored in a modern library on site, in which I have found a number of interesting paragraphs that have assisted me in my studies. It was while studying his words, I came across this remarkable description of poetry, which lovers of the art must enjoy.

All poetry is an inspiration, a thing breathed into the thinking organ from above; it is recorded in the mind, but is born in the higher principle of direct knowledge or ideal vision which surpasses mind. it is in reality a revelation. The prophetic or revealing power sees the substance; the inspiration perceives the right expression. Neither is manufactured; nor is poetry really a poiesis or composition, nor even a creation, but rather the revelation of something that eternally exists. the ancients knew this truth & used the same word for poet & prophet, creator & seer, sophos, vates, kavi.

Across the several square miles of land that Auroville takes up, there are various places to stay, & we got quite a good ‘un called Reve (pronounced rave), where Vics got a great hut on stilts & Im in a cheaper hit on the roof of the kitchen. The place is full of young, mainly French, ashram-heads, & is a picture of perfect tranquility. To get about the place, a moped/scoooter is essential, & a steal at only a quid a day – with petrol being 70p a litre.

Photo1741-1024x768

 

Vic’s even had a few goes on it, declaring it to be like riding a pushbike with a motor (well-observed that man). I love bikes me, for they provide moments like this morning when I razzed down to the boulangerie for chocolate croissants, listening & singing to Betty Boo – the chorusus especially startling folk on the roadside. Also filling the roads are loads of cute birds on bikes, from all over the world, which is always good for a poet’s soul.

The word boulangerie is of course French, for Pondicherry is the old French morsel of empire that carried on during the British Raj in much the same way the Portuguese held on to Goa. Cue boulevards & avenues & white-washed villas that are positively Marseilleian at the seafront, but then get swallowed by India street by street as one drifts inland. Ten blocks in all traces of the French have dissappeared. It was in Pondy that Victor & I conducted a little travel arranging – Vic bought a flight from Goa to Delhi for the 17th December, & we both got a ticket from Calicut to Goa for the 27th November, This gives us ten days – starting Sunday – to razz round Tamil Nadu & Kerala – about a thousand miles of travel – during which I’ll be still hunting for Jesus. It should be quite Indiana Jonesey, which is why I got into Litology in the first place, & I reckon there’s gonna be plenty to write about in the coming fortnight…

Auroville

15/11/2013

———————————-

 I left Auroville with Aurobindo’s book firmly ensconced in my backpack. Since then, I have picked at the contents occasionally, & finally feel ready to add my own tuppeneth to the long-running investigations. Of these, Sri Aurobindo has left many interesting pre-independence, anti-western, but undoubtedly correct remarks, including;

Only a serious scrutiny of the Mahabharat made with a deep sense of critical responsibility and according to the methods of patient scientific inference, can justify on in advancing any considerable theory on this wonderful poetic structure.

It is not from European scholars that we must expect a solution of the Mahabharata problem. They have no qualifications for the task except a power of indefatigable research and collocation; and in dealing with the Mahabharata even this power seems to have deserted them. It is from Hindu scholarship renovated and instructed by contact with European that the attempt must come. Indian scholars have shown a power of detachment and disinterestedness and a willingness to give up cherished notions under pressure of evidence which are not common in Europe. They are not, as a rule, prone to the Teutonic sin of forming a theory in accordance with their prejudices and then finding facts or manufacturing inferences to support it. When, therefore, they form a theory on their own account, it has usually some clear justification and sometimes an overwhelming array of facts and solid arguments behind it

All that we know of the Mahabharata at present is that it is the work of several hands and of different periods — this is literally the limit of the reliable knowledge European scholarship has so far been able to extract from it. 

Photo1701-768x1024

A century ago the above berated ‘European scholarship’ did not have the resource of chispology to call on, so let us see what we can do, shall we? First things first, let us look at records of the MB’s authorship. In the poem’s massive prolegomena, we learn that because the Mahabharata was written in so difficult a style, Vyasa himself could remember only 8,800 of the Slokas, Suka an equal amount and Sanjaya perhaps as much, perhaps something less. Another passage in the prolegomena then states quite plainly that Vyasa first wrote the Mahabharata in 24,000 Slokas, adding that he afterwards enlarged it to 100,000. The quadrupling of the poem is actually a factochisp, for it is clear from a study of the MB that following the composition of the core poem concerning the War Parvas, a redaction was created by a lesser poet, to which was later added a great deal of new material by much inferior poets. In this passage, Sri Aurobindo ascribes the second poet as being like Valmiki in style – ie similar to the composer of India’s other great epic, the Ramayana;

In the Mahabharata we are struck at first by the presence of two glaringly distinct and incompatible styles. There is a mass of writing in which the verse and language is unusually bare, simple and great, full of firm and knotted thinking and a high and heroic personality, the imagination strong and pure, never florid or richly coloured, the ideas austere, original and noble. There is another body of work sometimes massed together but far oftener interspersed in the other, which has exactly opposite qualities, it is Ramayanistic, rushing in movement, full and even overabundant in diction, flowing but not strict in thought, the imagination bold and vast, but often garish and highly-coloured, the ideas ingenious and poetical, sometimes of astonishing subtlety, but at others common and trailing, the personality much more relaxed, much less heroic, noble and severe. When we look closer we find that the Ramayanistic part may possibly be separated into two parts, one of which has less inspiration and is more deeply imbued with the letter of the Ramayana, but less with its spirit

Sage-Vyasa-adleone-1

As for the setting of the poem, a number of Indian scholars have proscribed a 4th millennium BC date for the Mahabharata War. It is highly likely that some of the content of the poem does herald from this time, for the poem glorifies the Saraswathi River, which silted over about the year 2000 BC. However, the poem’s composition must post-date 1000 BC, for on my trip to India I identified the following materielle, as recorded in my blog;
Photo0078-1024x768

India’s capital is an amazing architectural feast, and before catching my ongoing flight to Ladakh, I spent a few hours touring the city. In Delhi, the rush of life, scent and colour that is in an Indian city is magnified a thousand-fold, accompanied by a grandiose array of tombs, forts and parks. Over the centuries they have been bequeathed to the city by a steady stream of conquerors, all of whom have ruled their Indian empires from this fortress in the north. Of the places visited, it was an hour spent within the idyllic fortified oasis of the Puran Quila that whetted my appetite the most for my mission ahead. The fort was built around a village named Indrapat, a phonetic match to the city of Indrapashtra. The great Indian epic poem, the Mahabharata, tells us this was the capital of the Pandavas, those members of an ancient and noble family who were both the cousins and the enemies of another Indian family known as the Kuru. Brought to conflict, a great and deadly war was fought between these two clans which sucked in all the peoples of ancient India, the story of which constitutes the bulk of the Mahabharata. Through astrological data found in the text, these events have been traditionally dated to c.3100 BC, yet the earliest archaeological strata of occupation at Purana Qila is c.1000 BC, somewhat confusing the issue. Because of this contradiction, Indian scholarship has been divided over the two dates for a century or two, and like any academic debate, both schools remain firmly entrenched in their mindsets. The actual answer lies tangled up in a series of layers, or strata, which were added to the poem’s contents over many centuries – in essence both schools are partially right.

Photo0169
Arjuna & Krishna at Kurukshetra

As for the other book-end in time, Hopkins in his, ‘The Great Epic of India’ (1902) concluded that the epic is dated after the youngest vedic works, ie post 600 BC, adding there was ‘no evidence of an epic before 400 BC.’ In the Chisper Effect I showed how the 1st century AD Issa-Jesus, or Ishvarakrishna, was the author of the Bhagavad Gita, & when searching for a figure to use as his mouthpiece for the Gita, Issa-Jesus chose Krishna. An objection may well be raised by traditionalists, who state that the Mahabharata, in which the Gita is contained, was written well before the 1st century AD. On the other hand, a growing number of modern scholars concur on the Gita being a late interpolation into the Mahabharata. Where Amit Chaudri calls the Gita a ‘slightly anomalous, somewhat unassimilate episode,’ Sri Aurobindo remarks on the Gita’s insertion, ‘into the mass of the Mahbharata by its author in order to invest its teaching with the authority and popularity of the national epic.’

In the Life of Issa, we learn how Issa-Jesus visited a tomb at the Jaggernatha temple in Orissa, ‘where repose the mortal remains of Vyassa-Krishna, and where the white priests of Brahma welcomed him joyfully.’ I myself have dabbled with the poetic arts, and have visited the tombs and shrines of several poets, such as those of Shelley and Keats in the Protestant cemetery of Rome, and the tomb of Dante in Ravenna. The latter was the author of the great Italian epic, the Divine Comedy, in which poem he actually places the Roman poet Virgil, who had lived over a thousand years before him. In the same fashion it feels as if the poetic Jesus was visiting one of his own poetic idols. One can see from this pilgrimage to Vyasa’s tomb how much of an interest Issa-Jesus had in the Mahabharata – so much so he ended up adding the Gita to it. In this poem, Krishna is in all essence a god incarnate, but  Vyasa’s Krishna is very different, whose divinity is not presupposed at all. Sri Aurobindo reports;

Krishna’s divinity is recognised but more often hinted at than aggressively stated. The tendency is to keep it in the background as a fact to which, while himself crediting it, the writer does not hope for a universal consent, still less is able to speak of it as a general tenet and matter of dogmatic belief; he prefers to show Krishna rather in his human character, acting always by wise, discerning and inspired methods, but still not transgressing the limit of human possibility

Panini

In the millennium between the foundation of Indrapashtra at Purana Qila, & the visit of Issa-Jesus to the tomb of Vyasa, we encounter a certain Panini, whose mentioning of the Mahabharata narrows our time frame down by about three centuries. In his famous Sanskrit grammar the Astadhydyi, Panini gives names connected to the Mahabharata – including Arjuna, Vasudeva, Yudhisthira – & even the name Mahabharata itself. With the classical Indian writers Brihatkatha and Mañjuśrī-mūla-kalpa both placing Panini as a contemporary of the short-lived Nanda empire, he must have lived some of his life between 345 & 321 BC.

In the same era there is a mention of a certain ‘Arya Krishna,’ who could well be our Vyasa Krishna. Within the pages of the ‘Tibetan Blue Annals,’ written in the 15th century by a monk called Gos lo-tsa-ba gZon-nu-dpal, the author introduces and translates what he calls, ‘a stray page from an Indian text on the hierarchy of the Doctrine which is in my possession.’

Arya Krishna in his turn protected the Doctrine, benefited living beings and entrusted the Doctrine to Arya Sudarsana, and passed into Nirvana. Arya Sudarsana in his turn fully protected the doctrine, benefited living beings and then passed into Nirvana. About that time in the city of Vaisali monks issued a statement containing the ten improper regulations. In order to expel these monks from the community, seven hundred arhats, including Sarvakamin and others, held a council. At that time three hundred years had elapsed since the Parinirvana of the blessed one. King Asoka having died, Sudarsan was reborn in Kashmir.

Arya Krishna was the 5th patriarch entrusted with the ‘dharma,’ ie the teachings of the Buddha. He is known for spreading Buddhism in Ceylon (Ramayana territory) with 500 followers at the request of that island’s king. As for his floruit, If we go backwards in time from the end of this passage, we may ascribe decent dates to those notices made in the Blue Annals.

238 BC: Death of Ashoka = King Asoka having died

c.250 BC: 300 years after the Buddha’s enlightenment = About that time… three hundred years had elapsed since the Parinirvana of the blessed one.

In the earliest part of the passage, we learn  that Sudarsana had succeeded Arya Krishna, whose life-span could easily stretch into the 4th century BC in which those earliest mentions of the Mahabharata appear in Panini. For me, the leading Buddhist of the time, Arya Krishna was also Vyasa Krishna, the composer of the great Hindu epic, for the Chispologist must learn to train their minds away from such linear notions as, ‘because Arya Krishna was a Buddhist, he could not have composed a Hindu poem.‘ In my Chisper Effect I showed how Issa-Jesus wrote the biography of the Buddha AND the Hindu-centric Gita. There are traces here & there in the MB of Buddhist influence, such  as the presence of the notion of Shambhala, alongside seventeen of the Jātaka that are parallel’d in the MB; including the Sammodamānajātaka, Mitacintijātaka (114) MBh 12,135 Pañcatantra, Sasajātaka (316) [MBh 12,141–145 Pañcākhyānaka & the Kuntanijātaka. During my studies, I came across the research of a German expert on the MB who noticed an anomaly.  At certain times in the poem the Pandavas are seen as scheming gamblers, which Adolf Holtzmann in his  Grammatisches aus dem Mahabharata, saw as evidence of an inversion. GJ Held succinctifies Holtzmann’s theory;

Now the Pandavas are spoken of as being Vishnuites & the Kauravas as being Sivaites. We might , therefore, expect that the struggle between the two parties in the Epic would be the recoil of a collision between an older Sivaism & a subsequent rise of Vishnuism, there are, however, no traces of such a collision to be found. But there was certainly a time when a close connection existed between Sivaism & Buddhism, & it is none less certainly known that there was once a collision between Buddhism & Brahamanism, which knowledge induced Holtzmann to assume that the Sivaism of the Kauravas must have implied a certain partiality for the teachings of Buddha. Finally Holtzmann arrives at the following historical reconstruction.
-
Right back in the most ancient times there was a guild of court-singers who extolled in their professional poetry the mighty deeds of their monarchs. Then came a talented poet who made of the original Epic composed in honour of the renowned race of the Kauravas a poem in praise of a great Buddhist ruler… But now the new teaching, coming into conflict with the growing pretensions of the Brahmins, begins to decline, & their priests concert the now popular poem to their own use, but reverse the original purpose of the work as a whole. Now it is no longer the Kauravas who are lauded but their very adverseries,  the Pandavas, to whom a decided predilection for Brahamanical doctrine is ascribed. The Epic is subjected to further revision. Buddhism is eliminated altogether.
-
The great drawback,‘ continues Held, ‘is that these alterations can only be inferred from the poem itself. External evidence is entirely lacking.’ However, if we cite Arya Krishna as that external evidence we gain our credible linkage between the MB & a Buddhist-influenced origin. Just as the Homeric poems are like the pre-Schliemann site of Troy itself, ie many strata waiting to be dug out & identified, so the Mahabharata will one day be given levels such as MBIIa & MB VIIb, & so on, with the deepest being the Buddhist original. At this point in my life I am too touched by the domestic goddess to consider roaming the subcontinent in search of the clues which solve the MB problem. So dense is the forest of slokas, that even if I tried I rather think my mind would get caught in the sticky webbing like a fly. Sri Aurobindo writes;
-

It is only by a patient scrutiny and weighing of the whole poem, disinterestedly, candidly and without preconceived notions, a consideration Canto by Canto, paragraph by paragraph, couplet by couplet that we can arrive at anything solid or permanent. But this implies a vast and heartbreaking labour

Yonaguni_2[1]

I shall present you with one whimper of a possibility of a strata. The year 1424 BC or thereabouts for the MB war is quite popular among scholars, such as S B Roy who used astronomical calculations to obtain that date, while Krishna’s ‘Dwarka City’ seems to have been submerged under the sea in the same period, an event recorded in the MB itself. Arjuna says;

The sea, which has been beating against the shores, suddenly broke the boundary that was imposed on it by nature. It rushed into the city, coursing through the beautiful city streets, & covered up everything in the city. I saw the beautiful buildings becoming submerged one by one. In a matter of a few moments, it was all over. The sea had now become as placid as a lake. There was no trace of the city, Dwaraka was just a name; just a memory

Under-water archaeological exploration at the site revealed a prosperous port town which had been in existence for about 60-70 year, before being submerged under the sea in the year c.1450 BC. This really does feel like Aryan Invasion time. In the core of the Mahabharata, Krishna is more a diplomatic mortal than the physical expression of immortal divinity. He is seen as the mover & shaker political statesman behind the armies of Yudhishthira as they conquered India. That an original Krishna figure could have been attached to the Aryan Invasions of India by the Hyksos leads us to the chispology of modern Krishna-scholar, Edwin Francis Bryant;

According to Arrian, Diodorus, & Strabo, Megasthenes described an Indian tribe called Sourasenoi, who especially worshiped Herakles in their land, & this land had two cities Methora & Kleisobora, & a navigable river, the Jobares. As was common in the ancient period, the Greeks sometimes described foreign gods in terms of their own divinities, & there is little doubt that the Sourasenoi refers to the Shurasenas, a branch of the Yadu dynasty to which Krishna belonged; Herakles to Krishna, or Hari-Krishna, Mehtora to Mathura, where Krishna was born; Kleisobora to Krishnapura, meaning ‘the city of Krishna,’ & the Jobares to the Yamuna, the famous river in the Krishna story.

The Shurasenas are named after Shurasena, the first Yadava king of Mathura. If this was Seuserenre, then Krishna would have been his grandson, & thus Egypto-Hyksos. To this day in Puri, the very city where Vyasa-Krishna was lain to rest, the Ratha Yatra festival is almost identical to the Egyptian Opet festival. In the latter, Amun, Mut & Khonsus are placed on sacred barques & floated along the Avenue of the Sphinxes between the temples of Karnak & Luxor. In Puri images of Krishna, Balaram & Subhadra are carried upon chariots through the streets. We may also observe how both triads of idols were then/are still sprinkled with sacred water, decorated with jewelery & flowers & accompanied by musicians on their highly ritualised journey. We should also examine the cosmology of Balaram, for where this Hindu god is represented as an incarnation of the primeval serpent of the abyss, the Egyptian deity Khonsu is shown as the Great Snake who fertilizes the world.

Russia-Ratha-Yatra

In Sanskrit, Krishna literally means ‘the dark-blue one.’ In the latter term we can see a pathway into Egyptian theology, whose god Amun was clad in the same blue skin as Krishna, & just like Krishna was depicted in funerary art as having two ostrich feathers in his head-dress. Both gods are also depicted as having a ‘sacred river’ emerging from their feet, while the ancient ‘Coffin Texts’ of Egypt associate Amun with the falcon-headed Horus, just as Krishna is linked with the eagle-headed Garuda. In Egyptian, Amun is written as Ymn, which has been reconstructed by Egyptologists to ‘Yamanu,’ which transchispers into the sacred river ‘Yamuna’ in India, where grew up the boy Krishna. What appears to have happened is that after Vyasa used Krishna for the MB, he became personally associated with Krishna, with his creation slowly acquiring the status of Godhead.

Returning to Panini, I would like us for one moment to assume that his knowledge of the Mahabharata was contemporary. leaning further in that direction, let us now assume that with his work in Sanskrit being under the patronage of a Nanda king, this same king also patronised the Mahabharata. It this from hyperfact that we can make quite solid philological associations between members of the Nanda dynasty & characters mentioned in the Mahabharata. The first Nanda monarch was Ugrasena – also known as Mahapadma Nanda – who had eight sons. Of these, it was Dhana who succeeded to the throne, a little time before he was conquered by Chandragupta. Of his brothers, both Panduka & Pandugati seem philochisps of the Pandavas, one of the two main warring families in the MB. As for Dhana, he clearly appears in the MB as Duryodhana, but it is in Diodorus Siculus that we find a rather interesting avatar. This passage is also interesting for history as it sees the moment when Alexander the Great decided attacking the Nanda Empire would not be worth it after all.

While all this was going on, Hephaestion returned with his army from his mission, having conquered a big piece of India. Alexander commended him for his successes, then invaded the kingdom of Phegeus where the inhabitants cheerfully accepted the appearance of the Macedonians. Phegeus himself met the king with many gifts and Alexander confirmed him in his rule. Alexander and the army were feasted bountifully for two days, and then advanced to the Hyphasis River, the width of which was seven furlongs, the depth six fathoms, and the current violent. This was difficult to cross.

He questioned Phegeus about the country beyond the Indus River, and learned that there was a desert to traverse for twelve days, and then the river called Ganges, which was thirty-two furlongs in width and the deepest of all the Indian rivers. Beyond this in turn dwelt the peoples of the Tabraesians and the Gandaridae, whose king was Xandrames. He had twenty thousand cavalry, two hundred thousand infantry, two thousand chariots, and four thousand elephants equipped for war. Alexander doubted this information and sent for Porus, and asked him what was the truth of these reports. Porus assured the king that all the rest of the account was quite correct, but that the king of the Gandaridae was an utterly common and undistinguished character, and was supposed to be the son of a barber. His father had been handsome and was greatly loved by the queen; when she had murdered her husband, the kingdom fell to him.

Alexander saw that the campaign against the Gandaridae would not be easy, but he was not discouraged. He had confidence in the fighting qualities of his Macedonians, as well as in the oracles which he had received, and expected that he would be victorious. He remembered that the Pythia had called him “unconquerable,” and Ammon had given him the rule of the whole world.

Xandrames
Janramesa
Janamejaya

According to the MB itself, after Vyasa had recited the poem, then his pupil Vaisampayana recited ‘the entire thought’ of Vyasa at the Snake Sacrifice of King Janamejaya, whose name transchispers into Xandrames, ie our Dhana. The NEXT time the MB was recited, it was a generation later by a certain Ugrasravas, whose name recalls the Nanda emperor,  Ugrasena, whose name also appears in a Vedic Sanskrit text known as the Shatapatha Brahmana. Reaching its final version in 300 BCE, this text says Ugrasena was the son of Parikshit, & thus the grandson of Arjuna, alongside three brothers – Janamejaya, Bhimasena & Śrutasena. Thus we have a royal Ugrasena related to a royal Janamejaya, just as a royal Ugrasena is related to a royal Xandrames. It now seems quite likely that the court of the Nanda Kings is the local in which the MB began to take the form recognizable by the world at large. Finally, the MB tells us that Ugrasravas dictated the MB to a certain rishi called Saunaka. Its always nice to finish with a little food for thought, so beginning with Janamejaya’s brother, Srutasena, we can create the following babel-chain.

Srutasena
Sudar-sana
Sana
Saunaka

It is recognizing the cross-pollination of the Nanda kings with the leading arhats of the Palitapura Buddhists in the 4th century BC that brings us to the following possibility. In the legends of Krishna, he is said to be the grandson of a certain Ugrasena. This Ugrasena had a son called Kamsa who is said to have killed the princely sons of Devakai, except of course Krishna, who survived the royal cull. Thus, when the Greek writer Quintus Curtius Rufius gives the name Agrammes to Dhana, we can recognize the Kamsa-Gramsa-Agrammes babel-chain. Curtius also mentions that Dhana’s father, Ugrasena, ‘usurped the supreme authority, and, having put the young princes to death...’ an incident which seems to have later creochisped into the Krishna legend. Convoluted, yes; accurate; seemingly;  & chispology, of course!

——————————————-

Next Wednesday, 14/02/17

Chapter 4 : Agastya

—————————-

chisp cover

CHISPOLOGY

Chapter 1: The Exodus
Chapter 2: The Aryan Invasion
Chapter 3: The Mahabharata
Chapter 4: Agastya

***

***

***

—————

THE CHISPER EFFECT

chisper_effectChapter 1: Chispology 
Chapter 2: Princess Scota
Chapter 3: The Ithica Frage
Chapter 4: The Jesus Jigsaw
Chapter 5: Asvaghosha
Chapter 6: Dux Bellorum
Chapter 7: Dux Pictorum
Chapter 8: The Holy Grail
Chapter 9: The Mandylion
Chapter 10: Shakespeare’s Grand Tour
Chapter 11: The Dark Lady
Chapter 12: The Ripper Gang